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The women of the west borrowed from the cosmetics first prepared by the Egyptians, Syrians and Phoenicians -- lipsticks, nail polish, eye shadows, eye liners (kohl) perfumes and powders, hair dyes (henna), body lotions and oils, even wigs.

A symbol of the vanity of the medieval ladies of European courts, was the high peaked pointed cap with its trailing veil of silk. This fashion of Jerusalem was called the tontour, and noble ladies of both the East and the West vied with each other on the height of the tontour and the elegance of the fabrics used in the design of this face-framing millinery.

Much of our contemporary jewelry takes its inspiration from the adornments of the ancient and medieval Arabs, and the highly prized squash blossom design was once on the uniform button worn by Spanish conquistadors.

Other Sciences

In Arab engineering we can look to the water wheel, the cistern, irrigation, water wells at fixed levels, and the water clock.

In 860, the three sons of Musa ibn Shakir published the Book on Artifices which described a hundred technical constructions, and one of the earliest philosophers, al-Kindi, wrote on specific weight, tides, light reflection and optics.43

Al-Haytham, born in the tenth century, wrote a book on Optics, Kitab-al-Manazir. He explored optical illusions, the rainbow, and the camera obscura, which was the beginning of photographic instruments. He also made discoveries in atmospheric refractions -- mirages and comets -- studied the eclipse, and laid the foundation for the later development