SURVEYING PARTY OF 1797
I have not yet discovered a full list of persons engaged in the expedition of 1797. The following names appear in Mr. Pease's diary and accounts, in a way which shows they were connected with the surveys of that year, but there may have been others. Men were employed and discharged during the season.
Rev. Seth Hart, Superintendent.
Seth Pease, Principal Surveyor.*
Richard M. Stoddard,* Amos Spafford*
Moses Warren,* Warham Shepard*
Amzi Atwater,* Phineas Barker
Joseph Landon,* Nathan Redfield
Theodore Shepard,(or Shepherd,) Physician.*
Col. Ezra Waite, Maj. William Shepard,
Thomas Gun, Hubbard T. Linsley,
Peleg Waterman, David Eldridge, (drowned)
(or Washburn,) Minor Bicknell, (died,)
Register of the Party.
Josiah Barse,(or Barze,) John Doane,
Jotham Atwater, Joseph Tinker,*
Oliver Culver, Samuel Spafford,
Dan'l Holbrook, Explorer, (son of Amos,)
Stephen Gilbert, Lot Sanford,
Nathaniel Doan,* Alpheus Choat,
David Clark, William Andrews (died,)
Solomon Gidings, Matthew L. Gilgore,
Samuel Forbes, E. Chapman,
James Stoddard, David Beard,*
Ezekiel Morley,* Solomon Shepard,
Thomas Tupper, William Tinker,
Chester Allen, Alexander Allen,
James Berry, George Gidings,
Berry Nye, James Stoddard,
Joseph Nye, Enoch Eldridge,
Asa Mason, Charles Parker,*
Eli Kellogg, Job Coe,
William Barker, Eli Rowley,(deserted,)
Shubal Parker,(or Park,) Clark Reynolds,
Jacob Carlton, John Hine,
Phil Barker, Sylvester Smith,
*These were of the party of 1796.
The names of the Shepherds are spelled both ways, interchangeably.
The outfit of the surveying party of 1797, and the funds were entrusted to Seth Pease. He left Suffield on the 3d day of April, and proceeded to Schenectady, to organize his company.
Mr. Thomas Mather, of Albany, New York, assisted him in this business. It appears that the
Land Company did not supply them freely with money, for he says:
"Thursday, April 14th-Spent the week thus far in getting necessary supplies. The want of ready cash, subjects me to considerable inconvenience. Mr. Mather purchases the greater part on his own credit; and takes my order on Mr. Ephram Root, Treasurer."
April 15th-Helves were put into the axes, and they were ground. Rations began to be issued, and the camp utensils, left there by General Cleaveland, were again brought into use. Delayed on account of the compasses not being ready, which were to be made at Ballstown, by Mr. F. Young.
April 20th-Six boats started up the Mohawk. Each mess of six men received for daily rations, chocolate, one pound; pork, five pounds; sugar, a small porringer; one bottle of rum; one-half bottle of tea; flour or bread, not limited. A man, his wife and a small child, taken on board one of the boats.
April 22d-Warham Shepard, sent back to Ballstown for another compass. Doan, Holbrook and Forbes sick.
April 24th-Arrived at the Little Falls of the Mohawk. Paid for lockage $12 07.
April 25th-Reached Fort Schuyler, where Phineas Barker joined them, and also Mr. Harts boat.
April 26th-The men very much fatigued.
April 27th-Reached Fort Stanwix (Rome, New York.)
April 28th-At Oneida lake, joined by Ezra Wait and Samuel Keeny.
April 30th-Made the portage around Oswego Falls. Mr. Pease obtained his trunk, left at Three River Point, the year previous.
May 1st-Passed Oswego Falls portage, with the freight, ran the boats over the rapids and reached the Fort. Detained by storms till Wednesday, May 3d, and that day reached Salmon creek, one mile west of Great Sodus bay. The next day arrived at "Gerundigut" bay; and found their expected articles were not there. Oliver Culver, Samuel Spafford, and Daniel Clark joined the company.
"Friday, May 5th-This morning Mr. Redfield took charge of the men and stores. I started for Canandaigua, on a horse hired of Dunbar. (Dunbar was a mulatto hunter or squatter at the bay). Went to Richardson's, where Mr. Hart was waiting for me, and we rode in company to Canandaigua."
"May 6th-Found Moses Shepard (or Shepherd) at Sanborn's (or Sanburn's) who had procured pork, flour, cheese, whisky, horses and cattle. Conversed with Mr. Augustus Porter, about taking the superintendency of the surveys this summer, who concluded he could not attend to it; and advised me to proceed according to my instructions.
Sunday, May 7th-Sent the hired horse by Mr. N. Doan to Gerundigut, and also Mr. Hart's; gave him a crown for expenses. One of our hands, by the name of Rowley, came to this place last night with his clothes, and inquired the way to Whitestown. It is reported he has left us, which I find to be so.
May 10th-The land party in charge of Major William Shepard are: Warham Shepard, Thomas Gun, Hubbard T. Lindsley, Peleg Waterman, (probably Washburn,) Amzi Atwater, David Eldridge, Josiah Barse, Minor Bicknell, Jotham Atwater, John Doane, Doctor Shepherd.
Thursday, May 11th-Departed from Gerundigut a few minutes past 6 o'clock, A.M. Our fleet consisted of Major Amos Spafford, Seth Hart, Seth Pease, Joseph Tinker, David Beard, and N. Redfield, and six boats. I left one boat in charge of Moses Warren to bring on the whisky and other store, expected this day. Reached Oak Orchard, forty-to forty-five miles.
Sunday, May 14th-Arrived at the garrison at Niagara, and gave the commanding officer, Captain Bragg, my letter. I went in, but we were not permitted to inspect the works, which were undergoing repairs, and went on to Queenstown.
On Monday we concluded to send boats No. 278 and 280 back to Gerundiugt, in charge of Beard
and Tinker, for the rest of the stores. Put up at Ingersoll's.
Friday, May 19th-Started from Chippeway with two boats, one for myself and one for Spafford. Reached Buffalo before night, and found the land party had been here since last Tuesday. They had bought and borrowed some flour and taken some fish, but lived very sparingly. Major Shepard, Dr. Shepherd and Warham Shepard came in this evening with three horses and a compass.
May 20th-Major Shepard set forward with the horses and cattle by land; head winds.
Monday, May 22d-Started at 6 o'clock, A.M. Reached Cataraugus about 4 o'clock, P.M., and tried to get an interpreter, but could not. The Indians stole eight to ten pounds of our pork and ham.
Friday, 26th-Wind favorable and steady during the day. We kept our course outside of Presque Isle about 3 o'clock, and reached Conneaut before sunset, making no stop this day. Found the entrance good.
About 2 o'clock at night the wind shifted, rolled in a heavy sea, broke the painter of one of the boats, and set it adrift. There was a cry that out boats were all gone. As there was no living without them, we resolved to follow them, but happily they were not driven out of the creek, and were soon secured, setting a guard the rest of the night. We found that Mr. Gun's family had removed to Cuyahoga.
Mr. Kingsbury, his wife and one child, were in a low state of health, to whom we administered what relief we could. Phineas Barker has not been able to do much for seven days, on account of fever and ague.
Monday, May 29th-Major Spafford started at half past 10 o'clock, A.M., to run the line between towns 10 and 11, in the 1st, 2d, and 3d Ranges.
May 30th-Landon and Parker came on with their boats.
May 31st-I left Conneaut about 10 o'clock, A. M., with our boats; the other, destined for Mary Easter's, was almost ready to start, and was to wait there for Major Spafford. The cattle were all ready but three, which the men were in search of. We had a fair wind till about 2 o'clock, P.M., when it came ahead. We partly unloaded the boat, and drew it into a small creek, about twenty miles west of Conneaut. Phelps and Parker put into the same creek.
Thursday, June 1st-Started at 7 o'clock, rowed five or six miles, then had favorable wind; passed Grand River at 10 hours 55 minutes, Chagrin river at 12 hours 25 minutes, and entered Cuyahoga at 3 hours 22 minutes, P.M., landing at the store house at 4 o'clock. That night I was very unwell and had the toothache, from wading in the water and taking cold.
Found Mr. Stiles and Mrs. Stiles well, also Mrs. Gun. Mr. Gun had gone back to Conneaut.
The 19 men with me were Major Wm. Shepard, Dr. T. Shepherd, Ezikiel Morley, Nathaniel Doan, and -Reynolds. Reynolds was set to chopping railcuts.
Saturday, June 3d-Wind easterly. Two boats came in, and informed me that three of our boats, had reached Conneaut, and that Major Spafford's boat was at Mary Easter's on Thursday. This night four of our boats arrived, viz: Spafford's, Warren's, Redfield's, and Hart's; property but little injured on the voyage. About 11 o'clock this day David Eldridge, one of our men, was drowned in attempting to swim his horse across the Grand river. He was nearly an hour in the water, before he could be got out. The boats put into the river, and Mr. Hart used every precaution to recover him, without effect. His corpse was brought to the Cuyahoga River.
Sunday, June 4th-This morning selected a piece of land for a burying ground, the north parts of lots 97 and 98; and attended the funeral of the deceased with as much decency and solemnity as could possibly be expected. Mr. Hart read church service. The afternoon was devoted to washing.
Cleaveland, Monday, June 5th-Began to clear land above the bank for a garden, and examined the stores to see if every thing was in condition.
June 6th-Most of the men worked at the clearing got it cleared and fenced. Major Shepard and Esquire Warren, set out with Andrews as pack-horseman,
to explore the next township south of this, and the one next south of Euclid.
Wednesday, June 7th-This morning Redfield started to run the line between Ranges 11 and 12, with ten days provision. Returning he is to begin at the south-east corner of Euclid, run north to the lake, and if necessary set off a piece to Wells township. Then go back, and run south to intersect the line between Towns 4 and 5.
Friday, June 9th-Shepard and Warren returned, and report No. 6 in the 11th Range (Bedford) well watered and a plenty of mill seats.* * * They traveled over part of No. 7 in the 11th Range (Warrensville) and their whole route, was over choice land, with plenty of small creeks-about five of the lots they passed through in Cleaveland good land, then flat, inclined to swampy and bad water.
This day three parties, Shepard's Warren's and Spafford's were delivered their supplies to start tomorrow if the weather permits. Warm south-west winds- articles delivered to each party; pork, flour, tea, chocolate, sugar, ginger, spirits, vinegar, cheese, pepper, empty bags, fire steel and punk, candles, a tent, axes and hatchets, pocket compass, measuring pins, salt, soap, horses Major Shepard will receive his next supplies at the upper head quarters -has twenty days provisions. Moses Warren, Esq., will go to the south-east corner of No. 6, in Range 9, and run east to the Pennsylvania line, then travel to
the ten mile post on the first meridian, (Coitsville) and run east to the State line, and then run west from said point. Provisions for thirty days.
To Richard M. Stoddard:-You will proceed up the river to our head quarters, though I am at a loss at present where it will be fixed, but you may take the line between the 10th and 11th ranges, and I will give you notice on that line, at the nearest corner. We shall go as far as possible with our boats. If I have an opportunity I will send a line here, after we have fixed our head quarters. If you should not arrive here, (Cleaveland) so as to be there in about thirty days from this date, I think you had better not go up the river, unless you receive another line from your humble servant,
Saturday, June 10th-Shepard and Warren's parties take their departure about 101/2 o'clock, A.M. Spafford's and my party moved up the river about 4 o'clock, P.M. Got near Warren's line, and camped on the west bank. Left a frying pan.
Mr. Jos. Tinker:-I wish you to return and bring another boat load of stores as soon as possible. You will take four hands, and have such men return as are best pleased with the business of boating. I wish you a prosperous voyage.
Mr. David Beard, Sir:-The surveyors have this day taken to the bush. We intend to build a storehouse up the river. I wish you and those men who came with the boat, and are not return with Mr. Tinker, to report to the head-quarters, and take charge of the stores. On out return from the Pennsylvania line, one or two of the surveyors will go exploring, and if you choose, you can accompany one them. You will take a boat up the river, with three barrels of flour and two of pork, some chests, &c., which Mr. Hart will show you.
Sunday, June 11th-Run a little beyond my line, and camped for the night on the east bank. We had to cut off some logs in order to pass.
Tuesday, 13th-On the river, between Towns 4 an d5, (Boston and Northfield.) Spafford's party started out about noon, to run this parallel.
Wednesday, 14th-Mr. Beard arrived from Cleaveland with news that both boats had reached there on Sunday night at 10 o'clock. They left one load at Conneauat, and brought on Mr. Kingsbury's family. We manned his boats and proceeded up the river, leaving Morley to keep the stores. Bicknall, (or Bicknell,) went in search of the pack-horses. Choat followed after Major Spafford, to have Atwater return. There camp up the river with Beard, Wm. Barker, Choat, the two Allens, and two men,
Mr. Brown and Mr. Richey, who came to view the country. Last night made observations for variation one degree sixteen minutes east. Porter's compass had given just below the old town (Pilgerruh,) two degrees east. Mr. Porter called the variation at the mouth of the Cuyahoga one degree twenty minutes east. Water shallow and swift; found much difficulty in getting along. Camped opposite the peninsula.
Thursday, 15th-Navigation better than yesterday. Arrived about 1 o'clock where we judged the line between three and four would come. Left Brown and Richey in charge of stores, and went down to Morley's camp. Bicknell had not found the horse. Jotham Atwater returned, and says that Choat lost the lines, and did not find them till 11 o'clock; and that Spafford had run three miles.
Friday 16th-Sent Amzi Atwater with a boat load of provisions to the north-west corner of Town 4, Range 10, (Hudson). Started up the river, and got to the upper camp about 4 o'clock, P.M. Atwater came in before night, and said that Redfield had run to the place expected, and was about going to the river when he delivered him the message, and Redfield returned to his line. Took the level of the water at the peninsula. The ridge is twelve and a half feet above the water on the upper side, and eighteen and a half feet above it below, making six feet fall, and a rock bottom quite across the river.
Saturday, June 17th-Mr. Beard took charge of one boat, and myself the other, and proceeded up the river, about a mile above where the stream from the south comes in,(Little Cuyahoga) to the head of boat navigation.
Sunday, 18th-After landing out stores, we took one boat and all hands went down to Morley's camp, in just three hours. Minor Bicknell had been to Cleaveland for the horse, and had returned with him. He lay out without fire or blanket, or much provisions, one night going and one coming. The horse got there before him. Redfield brought in his line north of our camp. Received letters from Messrs. Hart and Stoddard. Richard Stoddard had arrived with his brother, and wishes employment.
Monday, 19th-Spend the day in washing and getting ready for the bush. Sent one boat down the river, by Thos. Tupper with Messrs. Brown an Richey. Wrote to Stoddard to survey more one hundred acre lots in Cleaveland. To Mr. Hart to have Dr. Shepard come up if he could be spared N. Redfields party fitted out with twenty-eight days provisions."
The field books and memoranda of Mr. Pease are very full and interesting. They show the movements of the various parties of which he was the head, the general progress of the work, and the personal incidents of which such expeditions are fruitful. Although everything connected with the survey of the Reserve,
has relation to the history of this city, I have not space to insert all of the transactions of year 1797.
Mr. Pease and his party left the upper head quarters on the 25th of June, to resume the survey of the south line of the Reserve where it was left off the year previous, twenty miles west of the Pennsylvania line at the south-east corner of Berlin. They traveled along the great Indian trail which passed through Stow, crossing the Cuyahoga at Franklin Mills, or Kent, then known as the "Standing Stone," from a natural pillar of sand rock which stood in the middle of the stream, bearing a stinted pine. This ancient highway of the savages, passed up the valley of Breakneck creek, crossing the summit not far south of Ravenna, thence through Edinburg, Palmyra, and Milton to the Salt Spring, and thence down the Mahoning to the forks of Beaver.
Pease arrived at the starting point on the 3d of July, and took observations for the variation, which he fixed at one degree, 30 minutes east. On the subject of the irregularities of the compass, he says:
The south line was run as follows: From the Pennsylvania line to the fifth mile, one degree, twenty-one minutes, should have been one degree, twenty-five minutes. From the fifth to the ninth mile, one degree, thirty-three minutes. From ninth to thirteenth I expect was very near the truth.
From thirteenth to fifteenth mile, two degrees, two minutes, ought to have been one degree, fifty minutes."
"From observations made on the various compasses, I find I cannot reduce them to a common standard, being differently affected at different places. Of two compasses on the Cuyahoga river, twenty miles south of the lake, one needle was to the left of the other ten minutes. At Cleaveland the one which was to the left stood fifteen minutes to the right, though they were not compared precisely at the same hour of the day. The magnetic needle is not always parallel to itself at the same place, which renders the compass an inaccurate instrument for running long lines. The variation is so irregular that it admits of no calculation, and must be determined by observations upon the heavenly bodies."
FROM THE FIELD BOOK OF MOSES WARREN.
Monday, July 17th-Started from the upper head-quarters (on the Cuyahoga, above the forks,) at 1 o'clock, P.M., to continue the 2d parallel, and meet Mr. Pease from the south. (Pease was continuing the south line of the Reserve to the Tuskarawas). White and Reynolds, chairmen; Gun, pack-horse man and cook; Hamilton and P. Barker, axmen. Barker to return tomorrow. Having lent my compass to Mr. Redfield to run the seventh meridian, I took one of the Ballstown compasses
that it not esteemed as good, but it traverses well with careful usage. Began at a post I set on the tenth meridian, (north-west corner of Tallmadge,) on the 30th of June. Ran west between Towns 2 and 3, Range 11, (Portage and Northhampton.)
July 18th-River fog prevented an observation of the polar star. Struck the right bank of the Cuyahoga river at three miles, forty-five links, thirteen chains, ninety-eight links from the Portage tree, which I traversed in three courses, the last crossing the river. I then traversed the path to course No. 23, and encamped at a run on course No. 7. Sent Barker back after crossing the river. By good observation of the polar star, I found the variation to be two degrees and 2 minutes east.
July 19th and 20th-Continued the traverse to Tuskarawa landing, at course No. 74. At No. 72 is a large white oak, marked with many Indian hieroglyphics. In this vicinity are many Indian camps. The traverse from the second parallel by the path is 658.53; length of the portage, 644.55 chains.
July 21st-Continued a traverse down the river, from which I was allured by Mr. Pease's pack-horseman, who sounded the Indian whoop, and being answered, refused to reply we neared him. Mr. Pease connected his traverse with mine at No. 96, about forty chains south-west of the landing. Returned to the upper head-quarters with Mr. Pease and party, in the evening. Except the Cuyahoga hill,
the Portage will admit of an excellent road, and that is not so formidable as the one at Queenstown, Upper Canada.
"Aug. 5th, 1797, 5 o'clock, P.M.-By the grace of God and good health, left Cleaveland with Joel Hawley, Thomas Tupper, chainmen; Matthew L. Gilgore and Encoch Eldridge, axmen; Sylvester Smith and Chester Allen, horsemen, with three horses, two hundred and sixty pounds of flour, one hundred and thirty pounds of pork, twelve pounds of sugar, four pounds of Chocolate, one and a half pound of tea, six quarts of rum, one half peck of beans, one camp kettle, one frying pan, and six tin cups, for a tour of thirty or forty days, to proceed to No. 1 in Range 10. Encamped about two and a half miles from head-quarters."
SURVEY OF THE TEN ACRE LOTS IN THE TOWN OF CLEAVELAND.
"CENTRAL HIGHWAY," OR EUCLID STREET.
"August 20th-Began at the post at the east end of Huron street, (Euclid Street Church,) north-east side of the City of Cleaveland, run thence north eighty-two degrees, east, setting a post at every tally, to the west line of the one hundred acre lots. Highway, one hundred and fifty links wide. Ran back on south side, south eighty-two degrees west, setting posts opposite the first at every tally, to the city line. The posts aforesaid are bounds of the highway
and corner boundings of the lots, and are marked H. Numbers to be put on when the cross lines are run.
"SOUTH HIGHWAY," OR KINSMAN STREET.
August 21st-Began at the end of Erie street, and ran south seventy-four degrees east, twenty-six tallies, one hundred and seven links, to the line of the one hundred acre lots, setting and marking posts at every tally; and then ran a line one hundred and fifty links south, sixteen degrees west of this, back and parallel to it, setting posts as before, each being marked like its opposite, to Erie street, west side.
"NORTH HIGHWAY," OR ST. CLAIR STREET.
Tuesday, August 22d-Went to a post at the end of Lake (Federal) street, south-east side, and ran north fifty-eight degrees east to the one hundred acre lots, setting the posts on both sides as I went, the north side posts being at right angles from the others, and one hundred and fifty links therefrom. Land swampy and scalded; will require causewaying to make a good road, but can be passed as it is. Returned to the city."
On the 23d and 24th the middle lines, between the above roads, were run, and the posts set at the proper distance for the rear corners of the out-lots, generally known as the "ten acre lots," although there is no uniformity in the quantity.
For further reading: Encyclopedia of Cleveland History