The Cuyahoga had one advantage which Grand river had not. Its boatable waters approached those of the Tuscarawas, having a portage of only seven miles, to reach indefinite canoe navigation connecting with the Ohio river. This route began again to be regarded as important, expecting through it to obtain commercial intercourse of much value. A scheme for improving the rivers and portages was already under discussion.



Nothing of special interest occurred at Cleveland in 1807, except the excitement caused by the murder of Nicksau or Nickshaw. The late Thomas D. Webb, of Warren came here in the fall, and thus describes the town and its society:

"I first saw Cleveland in October, 1807. I put up for a day or two with Major Amos Spafford, who kept a tavern. Having a letter of introduction to Governor Huntington, (then, however, a Judge,) I called at his house, and as he was absent on the circuit of the Supreme Court, I presented it to his wife and induced her to board me for a short time. I remain about three weeks, I think, and then left Cleveland. Gov. Huntington then lived in a log house, standing a little south of Superior street, not far from the site of the American House. He had a frame barn, in size thirty feet by forty, near by.


In his barn-yard. I saw wild turkies for the first time. At that time the family of Governor Huntington was composed of his wife, children, the number I do not recollect, and one female domestic, Patty Ryan, who came with him from Connecticut, another, a Miss Cobb, who also came with him, had returned. All the families on the city or ten acre lots, or the lands adjoining, at the time, that I recollect, and I think that I recollect all, were, Amos Spafford,-----Gilbert, Nathan Perry, Lorenzo Carter, Samuel Huntington, John Walworth, and an Irish family I have forgotten. Samuel Dodge had lived on a ten acre lot, but had at that time taken up his residence at Euclid; other families had resided there also, but at the time I arrived, had removed. There were the remains of some two or three buildings along the bank of the river, one of which I was told had been occupied as a store by a Scotchman, by the name of Alex. Campbell.

"Those buildings were all occupied at that time. When I was at Gov. Huntington's, there was a social party at his house, so far as I recollect, all females except myself. There were several married ladies, I recollect particularly but two, Mrs. Walworth and Mrs. Huntington. We had all, or nearly all, the young ladies in the place. I think there could not have been more than one absent; those present were she that is now Mrs. Long, Mrs. Mathews, of Painesville, and a daughter of Mr. Carter,


afterwards Mrs. Miles and subsequently Mrs. Strong."
What transpired in reference to the demise of Nichshaw, is well set forth in a letter from General Elijah Wadsworth, dated at Canfield, February 5th, 1807, to Judge Huntington, and his reply.

'Judge Huntington, Cleveland,

"Dear Sir:-Since I last wrote you, we have had information from your quarter that Nickshaw was killed instead of John Mohawk. If this be true, as Mohawk was the one who shot Mr. Diver, ought not Mohawk to be demanded of their chief, and delivered up for trial?'

Elijah Wadsworth.

"Cleveland, February 10th, 1807.

"General Elijah Wadsworth, Canfield,

"Dear Sir:-Yours of the 21st came to hand on Saturday last, and that of the 5th yesterday. I had, previous to the receipt of the first letter, seen Seneca and others of his tribe, also Ogontz and fifteen of his people who came here at the request of Seneca.

"As the deceased was not one of Ogontz' nation, he said he should not like to lead in obtaining redress, but would be satisfied with what Seneca agreed to.

"Seneca said all he wanted was that the same measure of justice should be dealt out to Indians and white men. He said he was not content to see


all the exertions of our civil authority, used against those who had shot the white man while we were asleep, as to the number of an innocent Indian. He concluded by saying, he should be satisfied if both the Indian and the white aggressors, could have a fair and equal trial.

"I gave him assurances that the law would be put in force equally against both, and persuaded him to wait peaceably until the Court should meet at Warren. My expectation was, and still is, that the Court of Common Pleas would issue a Bench warrant for the apprehension of Darrow and Williams.

"It is said the magistrates of Hudson have been deterred by threats, from taking measures to secure the offenders. I hope for the honor of Hudson, that the majority of the people do not countenance such atrocities, and that some of the civil authorities will have firmness enough to put the law in force.

"Mr. Allen Gaylord told me, that the first man who attempted to arrest Darrow and Williams would be shot, and that the constables dare not execute a warrant against them, and that if the Indians wanted war they were ready for them. * * *

"I had also called on Major Carter, who agrees with me that the best way to give the Indians satisfaction is to do them justice, that since our talk with them, there was no immediate danger, and no necessity of a further conference as to what course would be pursued against our offenders. On the


same day I saw Seneca again, who said he had been threatened by some Hudson people. He did not wish for war, and would engage to deliver John Mohawk when required to do it, voluntarily, when Darrow and Williams were secured for trial.

'He and Major Carter and Mr. Campbell agree in their story. They went up to the place where Nickshaw was killed and buried him. There was no appearance on the snow, of a fight or scuffle and no club near. Nichshaw appears to have been shot in the back as he was running, and fell dead in his tracks.

"Seneca observed that the Indians might lie and that white men might life, but the snow could tell no lies. He is well convinced that it was an unnecessary murder, and is willing it should be ascertained by trial. Under this conviction, justice demands, and our own interests require, that he should be gratified.

"In case it should be necessary to demand the delivery of John Mohawk under the treaty, the regular course is to get affidavits to the necessary facts, transmit them to the Governor, and request him to make the demand. But I believe this to be unnecessary. ** I have no doubt that Seneca will freely deliver John Mohawk, when I assure him that legal steps have been taken against Darrow and Williams. Meanwhile, I think that you may assure your friends, that for the present none of


the Seneca nation among us, will harm our citizens and their property.

"I am, sir, respectfully yours,

Sam'l Huntington."

Seneca, who, according to Mr. Carter's statement, was a brother of Big Son, is well spoken of by all the early settlers. The late Edward Paine, of Chardon, was the companion of the Stiles family during the dreary and severe winter of 1796-7. After setting forth the conduct and character of the Indians who frequented the Cuyahoga, he says, "That they are capable of disinterested benevolence, and confer favors when none are expected, cannot be doubted by any one acquainted with Seneca, or as his tribe called him, "Stigwanish." This in English means "Standing Stone." In him there was the dignity of the Roman, the honesty of Aristides, and the benevolence of Penn. He was never known to ask a donation, but would accept one as he ought, but not suffer it to rest here. An appropriate return was soon to be made. He was so much of a tetotaler as to abjure ardent spirits, since in a drunken spree, he had aimed a blow at his wife with a tomahawk, and split the head of his child which was on her back." His home was in Seneca county, Ohio, from whom it was probably named. He also came to a violent death in 1816, at the hands of Jacob Ammond, of Holmes county, Ohio. Ammond claims that it was done in self-defence, Seneca having first fired upon him.


During this year the great scheme for opening communication between lake Erie and the Ohio river was put before the public. Resolutions had been offered by Joshua Forman in the New York Legislature, for a survey for a canal to connect Hudson river with lake Erie.

The improvement of the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas was then the great idea, of this part of the country and of Ohio.

It was thought it twelve thousand dollars could by some means be raised, the channels of those streams could be cleared of logs and trees, and the Portage path made passable for loaded wagons. Thus goods night ascend the Cuyahoga in boats to the Old Portage, be hauled seven miles to the Tuscarawas, near New Portage, and thence descend that stream in batteaux. This great object excited so much attention, that the Legislature authorized a lottery to raise the money. A copy of the scheme, and one of the tickets is here given.

Q No. 11441.



THIS ticket entitles the bearer to such Prize as shall be drawn against its number (if called for within twelve months after the drawing is completed,) subject to a deduction of 121/2 per cent. No. 11441.

J. Walworth{ Agent for the Board of Commissioners










THE Legislature of the State of Ohio, having at their last Session, granted a Lottery to raise the sum of Twelve Thousand Dollars, for the above mentioned purpose, and appointed the subscribers Commissioners to carry the same into effect-They offer the following SCHEME to the Public.


12,800 tickets

at $5 each


1 prize of

$5,000 is


2 do.



5 do.



10 do



50 do.



100 do.



3400 do








Prizes subject to a deduction of twelve and a half per cent.

The drawing of the First Class will commence at Cleveland on the first Monday of January, 1808, or as soon as three-fourths of the Tickets shall be sold; and the Prizes will be paid in sixty days after the drawing is completed.


Holders of Tickets, drawing Prizes of Ten Dollars, may, at their election, receive the money, or two Tickets of Five Dollars each in the Second Class.

For the convenience of the owners of fortunate numbers, Persons will be appointed in Boston, Hartford, New York and Albany, to pay Prizes. Their names, together with a list of Prizes, will be published in some Newspaper printed in each of those places, and in three of the Newspaper printed in each of those places, and in three of the Newspapers printed in the State of Ohio. Persons will also be designated to pay Prizes in Zainesville and Steubenville.

The subscribers have taken the Oath and given the Bonds required by Law, for the faithful discharge of their trust, and they flatter themselves that an object of such extensive importance, will not fail to attract the attention and patronage of many, who are not allured by the advantageous prospects held out in the Scheme.

John Walworth, Esq., of Cleveland, is appointed Agent of the Commissioners, to sign the Tickets, and transact the business of the Board in their recess.

Samuel Huntington, Zaccheus A. Beatty,

Bezaleel Wells, Lorenzo Carter,

Jonathan Cass, John Shorb,

Seth Adams, James Kingsbury,

Amos Spafford, Turhand Kirtland,

John Walworth, Timothy Doane,

Board of Commissioners

Cleveland, May 23d, 1807.


The drawing never came off. Those who had purchased tickets, many years afterwards received their money back without interest. Leonard Case remembered when he was the sole owner of one of those tickets.

From a receipt of Stephen Oviatt, of Hudson, it also appears that he possessed one, the price of which was $5.00. It read thus"

Hudson 29th Jan'y, 1811.

Received of Heman Oviatt a Ticket of Cuyahoga and Muskingum Lottery, to account with him or the Managers, on or before the Drawing of said Lottery. No. 7775, Letter K.

$5,00. Stephen Oviatt.

The paper on which the copy of Judge Walworth's letter is written, is of the old fashioned coarse brown sort, made by hand. It bears the name OHIO, C.B. &. B., in water lines, and was made within the State.

Judge Huntington was elected Governor of Ohio, succeeding Edward Tiffin, who became a member of the United States Senate. Another large draft took place April 2d, 1807, including most of the Company's land west of the Cuyahoga.


"Stephen Gilbert, Joseph Plumb, Adolphus Spafford, a son of Amos, and Mr. Gilmore, started early in the spring for Maumee river. They were


in a Mackinaw boat, with provisions and goods which Nathan Perry, senior, was sending to his son Nathan, at Black river. A young woman named Mary Billinger, was a passenger for Black river. Mr. White of Newburg, and two sons of Mr. Plumb, were too late for the boat. They were to go by land along the Indian trail, to overtake the party at the river, where young Perry had a store. When about half way there, they observed a wrecked boat on the beach, and hallooing as loud as they could, had a response from Mr. Plumb the elder. He was on the beach, below a cliff sixty or seventy feet high, benumbed with cold and very much injured.

"They soon learned from him that a squall had struck their craft about a mile from shore, capsizing it, and that all but himself were drowned.

"They were unable to reach him, down the steep rocks. Mr. White and one of his sons started off rapidly for Black river. The son who remained, getting out upon an ironwood sapling, bent it down with his weight, and dropping twenty feet or more, reached his farther at the foot of the cliff. During the night Mr. White returned with Quintus F. Atkins, and Mr. Perry. They all managed to haul Mr. Plumb up to the top of the bank. As he was a corpulent man, of two hundred to two hundred and fifty pounds weight, and quite helpless from exhaustion, this was no small undertaking. It was done after midnight, by the light of torches.


The bodies of Gilbert, Spafford and Gilmore, were near by, and were taken to Cleveland by Major Perry, who came along there with his boat. They were all good swimmers, except Mr. Plumb, who held fast to the boat after it upset, and was thus driven ashore. Gilbert told his fellows to rid themselves of their clothing, and thus they swam towards the shore."

"Had the weather and water been warm, they would probably have reached it. The corpse of the hired girl Mary, was found afterwards on the shore west of the wreck, and was buried at Black river.

"Of eighteen deaths which had occurred within this settlement, during the twelve years of its existence, eleven were by drowning. There had been no physicians nearer than Hudson and Austinburg up to this time."-(Barr.)



"This year Joel Thorp built a small schooner of five or six tons, and called her the 'Sally,' and Alex. Simpson built one of about the same size, christened the 'Dove.' Levi Johnson (now living, 1866,) and his brothers, Samuel and Jonathan became residents of the place. Amos Spafford was elected Representative in the Lower House from this place, then embraced in the County of Geauga. He was soon after appointed collector of the new


port of entry, established at Maumee, and in the spring of 1810 removed to Perryburg. The county of Cuyahoga being organized, Nathan Perry, Sr., Augustus E. Gilbert and Nathaniel Doan were elected Associate Judges, all residents of Cleveland Township, as it then was."(Barr.)

Although the project of connecting the lakes and the Ohio river with the sum of twelve thousand dollars had failed, Cleveland was attracting attention. Stanley Griswold, of Connecticut, had been appointed Secretary for the territory of Michigan in 1805, under Governor Hull, and Collector of the port of Detroit. On account of official difficulties he resigned, and took up his abode in this township, at Doan's Corners. A vacancy occurred in the Senate by the unexpected resignation of Mr. Tiffin. Governor Huntington appointed his friend Griswold to the vacancy, on his way to Washington he addressed a letter to Judge James Witherell, of the District Court of Michigan, in which he sets forth the condition and prospects of Cleveland.

"Somerset, PA., May 28, 1809.

Hon. James Witherell, now at Fair Haven, Vt.

Dear Sir:-Passing in the stage to the Federal City, I improve a little leisure to acknowledge your letter from Jefferson, Ohio, of the 16th instant. In reference to your inquiry (for a place for Doctor Elijah Coleman,) I have consulted the principal characters,


particularly Judge Walworth, who concurs with me, that Cleveland would be an excellent place for a young physician, and cannot long remain unoccupied. This is based more on what the place is expected to be, than what it is. Even now a physician of eminence would command great practice, from being called to ride, over a large country, say fifty miles each way. There is now none of eminent or ordinary character in that extent. But settlements are scattered, and roads new and bad, which would make it a painful practice. Within a few weeks Cleveland has been fixed upon by a committee of the Legislature as the seat of justice for Cuyahoga county. Several respectable characters will remove to that town. The country around bids fair to increase rapidly in population. A young physician of the qualifications described by you, will be certain to succeed, but for a short time, if without means, must keep school, for which there is a good chance in winter, till piece of ground, bring on a few goods, (for which it is a good stand,) or do something else in connection with his practice. I should be happy to see your friends. I am on my way to the Federal City, to take a seat in the Senate in place of Mr. Tiffin, who has recently resigned.

Very truly your obedient servant,

Stanley Griswold."


According to Collector Walworth's report to he Treasury Department, the amount of goods, wares


and merchandise exported to foreign countries, (Canada) from April to October, 1809, was fifty dollars.

At the fourth draft of April 2d, 1807, Samuel P. Lord and others drew the township of Brooklyn, No. 7, in Range 13. It was surveyed under their direction by Eziekiel Hover, in 1809, the interior lines of which were ran with a variation of two degrees east. The fifth and final division of the Land Company's property took place at Hartford, on the fifth of January of this year, at which the unsold lots in Cleveland were included.


Ravenna, June 11, 1860.

Charles Whittlesey, Esq., Cleveland,

Dear Sir:-I thank you for your kind invitation to attend the pioneer meeting at Newburg on the 13th.

You suggest if I could not attend, that I should put something on paper for the occasion. I fear I can scarcely add anything of interest to what I some time since wrote you. I first visited Cleveland, that part now called Newburg, in August, 1806, a boy of sixteen and a half years, and spent some ten days, perhaps more, in family of W.W. Williams. During my stay there, I formed some acquaintance with those of the neighborhood, especially with those young men or youths of my age, among whom were the Williams', the Hamiltons, the Plumbs


and Kingsburys, the Burks and the Guns. The Miles' had not then arrived. We attended meetings in a log barn at Doan's Corners once or twice, to hear the announcement of a new sect, by one Daniel Parker, who preached what he called Halcyonism-since, I believe, it has become extinct. We bathed together under the fall of Mill Creek, gathered cranberries in the marshes westward of the Edward's place, and danced to the music of Major Samuel Jones' violin at his house, afterwards the residence of my old friend, Captain Allen Gaylord, Judge Huntington, afterwards occupied by Dexter or Erastus Miles. Newburg street was opened previously, from the mill north to Doan's Corners, and was then lined with cultivated fields on both sides, nearly the whole distance from Judge Kingsbury's to the mill. But much dead timber remained on the fields. There were some orchards of apple trees on some of the farms, and Judge Kingsbury's orchard bore a few apples that season, which was probably the first season of bearing. The Judge had a small nursery of apple trees, and there was a larger nursery of smaller trees on Mr. Williams' place.

In May, 1809, when I first saw Cleveland city, as it was called even then, there were but few families there-Major Spafford, Major Carter, Judge Perry, Governor Huntington, and Judge Walworth,

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