vii

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

 

PREFACE

iii

 

INTRODUCTION by Joe Esterhas

1

 

AUTHOR'S FOREWORD

5

 

 

 

 

SECTION I: HISTORY OF HUNGARY

 

 

 

 

I.

INTRODUCTION

8

II.

THE ARPAD KINGS

10

III.

THE ANGEVIN AND ELECTED KINGS

18

IV.

THE TURKISH ERA

25

V.

RECONSTRUCTION, REFORM, AND THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

34

VI.

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

46

 

 

 

 

SECTION II: HUNGARIANS IN AMERICA

 

 

 

I.

PRE-COLONIAL TIMES TO THE CIVIL WAR (1583 - 1850)

62

 

A. The First Hungarians

62

 

B. Colonel Kovats and the American War of Independence

64

 

C. Explorers, Writers, Adventurers

68

 

 

 

II.

THE CIVIL WAR ERA (1851 - 1870)

80

 

A. Kossuth in America

80

 

B. The Emigres

84

 

C. Lincoln Hungarian Heroes

89

 

 

 

III.

THE GREAT IMMIGRATION (1870 - 1920)

102

 

A. One Million Hungarians

102

 

B. Labor Conditions

108

 

C. Institution and Organization

116

 

 

 

IV.

THE WORLD WARS AND THEIR IMPACT ON HUNGARIAN-AMERICANS (1920 - 1970)

129

 

A. The Inter-War Years

129

 

B. The Second World War and the Displaced Persons

136

 

C. The Refugees of the Hungarian Revolution

142

 


 

viii

 

 

SECTION III: THE HUNGARIAN COMMUNITIES OF CLEVELAND

 

 

 

I.

THE FORMATIVE PERIOD (1880 - 1910)

152

 

A. Kossuth in Cleveland

152

 

B. The Street were not Paved with gold

156

 

C. A Community Comes Into Being

170

 

D. Religious Institutions

185

 

E. Culture, Languange, and Literature

208

 

 

 

II.

THE BUCKEYE ROAD HUNGARIAN NEIGHBORHOOD (1920 - 1960)

223

 

A. The American Debrecen

223

 

B. The Unique Sub-Culture of Buckeye

229

 

C. Alienation and Conflict

241

 

D. Hungarians in Politics and Goverment

253

 

 

 

III.

WORLD WAR II AND ITS AFTERMATH (1945 - 1980)

258

 

A. The War Effort

258

 

B. The Displaced Persons

261

 

C. The Refugee of 1956

272

 

D. Recent Developments

278

 

 

 

 

SUPPLEMENTARY ARTICLES

 

Ethnicity and Politics: The Hungarian Experience in Cleveland - By: Dennis Frigyes Fredericks

292

 

The Building of a Church by an Immigrant Community: The Case of St. Elizabeth of Hungary - By: Rev. Rick Orley

298

 

Hungarian Cultural Contributions - By: LÚl F. Somogyi

304

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

 

APENDIX A : UNITED STATES CENSUS FIGURES

311

 

APENDIX B : CLEVELAND : HUNGARIAN-BORN AND FOREIGN STOCK

316

 

APENDIX C : BUCKEYE COMMUNITY - CENSUS TRACTS

318

 

APENDIX D : COMMUNITY BUILT CHURCHES

320

 


 

ix

 

TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

 

History Section

Page

 

Hungary and the European Countries in 1980 (map)

6

 

Eastern Europe in the Ninth Century (map)

12

 

Hungary under the Arpads (map)

12

 

The Empire of Louis the Great (map)

19

 

A Page from one of the hand written books (Corvina LIbrary)

22

 

King Matthias

22

 

The Magyar Population in the 15th Century (map)

27

 

The three zones of Turkish devastation (map)

27

 

The Women of Eger

29

 

Count Stephen Szechenyi

37

 

Louis Kossuth

37

 

Sandor Petofi

40

 

Janos Arany

40

 

Hungary's Partition by the Treaty of Trianon (map)

49

 

Zoltan Kodaly

55

 

Bela Bartok

55

 

The Holy Crown of Hungary

60

 

 

 

 

American-Hungarian Section

 

Colonel Michael Kovats

65

 

John Xantus

73

 

The Xantus Expedition (map)

75

 

Drawing by Xantus

77

 

Kossuth on cover of magazine

82

 

Kossuth's trip through the United States (map)

82

 

Major General Julius Stahel-Szamwald

92

 

Camp Zagonyi

95

 

Second Charge of the Fremont Guard

95

 

Letter from Capt. Mihalotzy to Lincoln

97

 

Major General Alexander Asboth

99

 

Hungarian immigrant family in Cleveland

107

 

Hungarian and Slovak workers in Pennsylvania

107

 

Photo from and immigrant family in Cleveland

113

 

Hungarian Roman Catholic church in Buffalo, N. Y

117

 

Verhovay Fraternal Association

122

 

The statue of George Washington in Budapest

125

 

Staff of Amerikai Magyar Nepszava

127

 

Women's Sick Benefit Society of St. Louis

128

 

First Int'l Congress of Hungarians

131

 

Conference of American Hungarian Federation

137

 

Aid sent to Hungary following W.W.II

137

 

Hungarian refugee youngster

143

 


 

 

x

 

TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

 

Cleveland Section

 

Location of Cleveland's Hungary neighborhood (map)

150

 

The American House

154

 

Clothing manufacturing Company

154

 

The first Hungarian neighborhood (map)

158

 

The first Hungarian neighborhood (map)

158

 

Boarding House

162

 

Immigrant men on outing

162

 

National Malleable Steel Castings

165

 

Hungaria Hall

165

 

Theodore Kudtz and his wife

168

 

The Kudtz mansion

168

 

Young Men's and Ladies Society Clubhouse

173

 

First Hungarian Reformed Women's Suck Benefit Society

173

 

Caricature of Kohanyi

177

 

20th Anniversary banquet of the Szabadsag

177

 

Commemorative ceremony at St. Elizabeth of Hungary

187

 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary R. C. Church

187

 

St. Elizabeth Hungarian School

189

 

St. Emeric's Hungarian Roman Catholic Church

192

 

St. Margaret of Hungary R. C. Church

192

 

St. John's Hungarian Greek Catholic Church

195

 

The First Hungarian Reformed Church

195

 

West Side Hungarian Reformed Church

198

 

West Side Hungarian Lutheran Church

198

 

Hungarian Lutheran Orphanage

200

 

First Hungarian Lutheran Church

200

 

First Magyar Presbyterian Church

202

 

B'nai Jeshurum

202

 

Shaker Square Hungarian Baptist Church

205

 

Shomre Hadath

205

 

Stage Players presenting "White Stag"

209

 

St. Stephen's Hall

209

 

West Side Hungarian Self-Culture Society

213

 

Magyar Athletic Club

213

 

English Language classes for foreign-born

216

 

Banquet for visiting dignitaries

222

 

Upper and lower Buckeye Road

225

 

Weizer buildings on Buckeye

228

 

Woodland Hills Park

231

 

Moreland Theater

231

 

St. Elizabeth Hungarian School

233

 

"Bogo Temetes"

236

 

Grape Harvest Festival

238

 

Group of enlistments

242

 


 

xi

 

TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

 

Cleveland Sections (Continued)

Page

 

Hungarian Workingman's Home

247

 

Workers Singing Circle

247

 

Food Package preparation during Depression

251

 

Old Settlers Association

251

 

Night in Budapest

256

 

Honor Roll of Military

259

 

Palotas Dancers at Ball

266

 

Hungarian Girl Scout troop

266

 

West Side Hungarian School

269

 

Demonstration in Cleveland

273

 

Aid Sent to Hungary

273

 

Cleveland Magyar Athletic Club (Soccer Team)

277

 

C. M. A. C Boxing Team

277

 

Statue of Mindszenty in Cleveland

283

 


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Last updated July 29, 2002