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APPENDIX I

Preparing an Italian American Genealogy

There is perhaps no activity which can more vividly reawaken one's sense of history and ethnic awareness than the compiling of a family history. For Anglo-Americans this can be a relatively simple process, for thousands of volumes have already been published specifically dealing with English, Scotch, Welsh and Irish genealogy and are relatively accessible in any large public library. The Cleveland Public Library, for example, has over 150 separate works dealing only with British ancestry, not including various periodicals such as the Parish Register Society and the Publications of the Northamtonshire Record Society.

Parish records in England, Ireland and Scotland have been well kept and many are available at the Western Reserve Historical Society and the Public Library. In this country each state Historical Society has compiled documents and other primary sources dealing with early settlers in their state. In sum, the original interest in family history has rested primarily with this Anglo-American community. Consequently the materials currently available reflect this group's pedigree.

Americans of Continental descent have had little printed material from which to work in their attempts to trace family histories. To further complicate matters one must also contend with language barriers and the almost continuous shifting of


323

boundaries over the last 200 years. Thus, depending on when and where a relative was born, his "official" language may have been Austrian while his vernacular speech would have been Slovenian, Croatian or Italian.

The Anglo-American can, with relative ease, trace his or her ancestry to a neatly kept collection of parish records in County Cork or Yorkshire. The uninitiated Italian-American would quickly realize that attempts to go beyond a paternal grandparent would end in frustration and failure. The problem is knowing how and where to look. Some of these questions will hopefully be answered in this essay.

This essay was prepared to assist those of Italian extraction in ascertaining their own individual family histories. It will require work, but the rewards of knowing more about your particular history should more than compensate for the efforts.

(1). The task of tracing a family history falls into two distinct categories. The first task lies in tracing the history of one's family in America and the second should deal with following those pertinent individuals back to Italy as far as possible. The first task should be approached in the following manner. Contact all relatives who can give any recollections about origins such as who was the first from your family to come to America. When did they arrive, and where? What section and town did they come from in Italy? These are really the most important steps in recreating a family portrait, because they will determine the framework for


324

the genealogy. This step is essential, because these living relatives can later clarify initial problems encountered in subsequent research.

(2). For the city of Cleveland you can trace your recent ancestors within the last 100 years or so by consulting the city Directory, available from the early 1800's to the present. The Directory can be used at the Western Reserve Historical Society or the Cleveland Public Library. They are arranged alphabetically and will include the name, address and occupation of the individual you are seeking. By using these on a yearly basis you can determine changes in occupations, ethnic mobility from one neighborhood to another, even changes in spelling of names. For example, Francesco de Nicola may appear for six consecutive years at a particular address and suddenly appear as Francis or Frank Nicols at the same address. Obviously there was a name change in the Americanization process but the original name is most important for tracing previous ancestry.

(3). Also at the local level, one should consult church records which will indicate additional information about the individual's background such as date and place of birth, marriages, baptisms, etc. Usually family members are allowed such access with permission from the parish and/or the diocese. The address of the Cleveland Catholic Diocese will be found in the last page of this essay.

If a non-Catholic member is involved, local civil information can be obtained by checking with the County Courthouse for such


325

materials. Some helpful guides have been prepared by the government on finding especially difficult civil materials. At a nominal fee of 35¢ each, one may order guides entitled "Where to Write for Birth and Death Certificates" and "Where to Write for Marriage Records" from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402.

(4). Since we are dealing with Italian aliens of the first generation who may or may not have become citizens, one should also contact the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization for official documentation which would determine general and occasionally specific information on a recently arrived immigrant.

Prior to 1906 information required for an immigrant in the process of naturalization was very sketchy. Most Italians immigrated to America about this time, so specific information would be marginal. These materials on naturalization would be kept in the local courthouse where the individual applied. If immigration occurred after 1906 copies of the naturalization papers would be housed locally as well as at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

I was reminded by the Bureau of Immigration that anyone wishing this kind of information must apply for it through the local Immigration and Naturalization office. In Cleveland this bureau is located in the Anthony J. Celebrezze Federal Building.

(5). It is also possible by writing or visiting the National Archives in Washington, D.C. to obtain a photocopy of a Federal Census record which would also indicate pertinent information


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about the individual in question. This listing required more sophisticated questions at the turn of the century when Italian immigration was greatest. Thus, the interested party could trace back his or her grandparent by using the Federal Census lists if aware of that person's city of habitation during a particular census period. Microfilmed copies of the Ohio Federal Census from 1820 to 1880 are currently available at the Western Reserve Historical Society. After 1900 the information must be obtained directly from the National Archives.

To do this contact the National Archives in Washington and determine which of its 11 branches is nearest to you. Write to that branch and give them the state, county and census year. They will give you the number of the microfilm roll containing the census information about your ancestor. Ask the Cleveland Public Library to borrow that film for you and you can get an accurate accounting of a particular ancestor's past.

(6). It is also possible in some cases to use the Federal Archives to determine the actual vessel which was used to transport one's relatives by utilizing Ship's Passenger Lists. These microfilmed collections would contain the name of the vessel, the ship's master, and most important, the names of all passengers, port of embarcation, age, sex and port of immigration. For the majority of Italians this port would be Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore or New Orleans. There is a special form for obtaining this information, Form GSA-7111, the official request for passenger lists. This must be done through the National Archives in Washington, D.C.


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Once you have traced your roots back to your relatives who first immigrated to America, the trail doesn't have to end there. You can indeed trace them back to the country, region and town from which they came.

An excellent place to begin is the massive library of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) in Salt Lake City, Utah. It holds information on people of every race, creed and nationality, from some forty countries. The library contains more than a billion names and genealogical data from 1538 to 1885. It maintains a staff of 75 around the world who are constantly microfilming records in national and local archives, museums, cemeteries, churches, etc. The six storehouses for this unique collection of microfilm are chiseled into a mountain in the Rockies.

Most of the information in the main library is available from any of the 216 local branches of the Mormon Church in the United States. None of the libraries accept requests by mail to trace ancestry but you can do it yourself on the premises free of charge. The address of the local branch is also located on the last page of this essay.

Thus, by using relatives, local records and Federal repositories the serious researcher should be able to trace the history of his or her own ancestry in this country. Who was the first Italian in your family to settle in America, where and when did he settle and from what area of Italy did he originate? Equipped


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with the answers to these questions, one is ready for the second major undertaking, that of tracing back one's genealogy to the region, town or frazioni (village) from which they originated.

This aspect for the Italian-American researcher is especially difficult because rarely have there been any guides to follow in this pursuit. One work in English by Joseph G. Fucilla, entitled Our Italian Surnames deals only with the origins of names rather than actually tracing back the individual family histories. Dante at least had Virgil and Beatrice to guide him through the uncertainties of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven. The Italian-American researcher could encounter formidable problems and without a working set of guidelines could lose his way in a labyrinth of manmade obstacles.

Although each individual's efforts will vary, certain standards can be set down establishing rules and procedures. If the exact area or town in Italy is known there should be fewer problems. In this case two sources are indispensable for research. First, the Civil Communal Archives of each town should contain all legal documents such as birth certificates, marriage licenses and death notices. These records were standardized in Italy in 1869, but in the south of Italy Civil Registration began in 1820.

Birth registers were required by law to show the exact time and place of nativity, sex, name of the child, surname, occupation, residence and occasionally the age of the father and maiden name of the mother. In some instances the names of the paternal grandparents are also indicated. Thus by writing or visiting the town


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where your ancestor originated you should be able to acquire knowledge of several generations.

The address of each communal archive may be acquired by writing to the Institute Italiane di Cultura, 686 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021. Another source is the two-volume work The World of Learning, 1976-1977. Italy in Volume I lists about 150 civic libraries and repositories in Italy by city with the addresses. Noel C. Stevenson's Search and Research (1959) also lists various European libraries and archives of benefit to the genealogist.

The Cleveland Public Library has several works in Italian on Italian genealogy, but they deal usually with Italian nobility and heraldry and usually would be of little value unless one's ancestors were titled nobility in Italy. Works of special note are the Dizionario Biografico Degli Italiani, a scholarly dictionary of national biography which began in 1960. Another monumental compilation is Vittorio Spreti's Enciclopedia Storica Nobiliare Italiana (6 Volumes, 1928-1932) which is helpful in identifying some Italian families.

By using the municipal archives one should be able to trace one's ancestry back to the early 19th century. If, however, this information is not available because of lost or damaged records another source is available. This is the Parish Archives which date back to an Edict of the Council of Trent in 1563, authorizing each parish to maintain a complete listing of its parishioners. The Parish Archives are usually in Latin and cover even the most


330

remote villages in the district. An application to the diocesan chancery is usually required before the local parish records are permitted to be used. Microfilming and/or xeroxing of pertinent information will not usually be available, so a letter with the needed information may be the contents of a reply from an Italian parish request. Names and addresses of pertinent ecclesiastical authorities in Italy may be obtained from the Institute Italiano di Cultura in New York or from the local diocesan office in Cleveland.

Also included in some parochial registers will be a Status Animarum, literally the "state of souls," which will list the particulars of a household. Included would be the names, ages, residence, birth dates, occupations and occasionally remarks about the spiritual status of the family. In some regions the Status Animarum was well kept and updated every two or three years while other areas were not as scrupulous in their clerical preciseness.

An interesting problem could arise when researching your Italian ancestry. In some cases there may be many persons in one town or village with the same surname as yours. One genealogist discovered that in a north Italian village of about 1400 people, 850 had the same last name. In a town in Sicily of some 6000, 80% of the population could be divided into 7 surnamed groups. It is for this reason that the Parish Records and the Status Animarum will be of significant value in ascertaining one's particular ancestry.


331

In addition to the Communal and Parochial archives one may also consult the Archivio di Stato or state archives, which exist currently in about 72 cities, each the chief city in a particular province. There are also state archives in the larger urban centers such as Rome, Naples, Palermo, Venice, Turin, Milan, Genoa, Florence, and Bologna. Addresses of these state archives are available from the Instituto Italiano di Cultura.

Within the archives notorial registers or minute books can be located which will contain information of a legal nature, usually marriage contracts, sales of property, etc. In addition military conscription registers known as Leva, covering a whole military district, may be consulted for persons born in the last 100 years. The Leva will reveal the exact birthplace of an individual as well as other pertinent information.

For the Italian-American of Sicilian ancestry who wishes to trace back his or her cultural roots there is an American-based travel organization which specializes in tours to Sicily for just that purpose. Perillo Tours in New York has plans to institute a speciality package which will specialize in genealogical searches in Sicily. The address of the Perillo Agency can be obtained from any travel service in Cleveland.

The following addresses will facilitate the interested researcher in obtaining preliminary information on an Italian-American family history:


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The National Archives
8th and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C.   20408

The Genealogical Society of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter Day Saints
50 East North Temple Street
Salt Lake City, Utah   84150
            ——
25000 Westwood Avenue
Westlake, Ohio   44145

Instituto Italiano di Cultura
686 Park Avenue
New York, New York   10021

The Italian Consulate: Cleveland
Consul Mario Anziano
Hilton Office Tower
Cleveland, Ohio   44115

The Italian Embassy
1601 Fuller Street
Washington, D.C.   20009

The Western Reserve Historical Society
10825 East Boulevard
Cleveland, Ohio   44106

The Cleveland and Catholic Diocese
1027 Superior Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio   44114

Phone:   216   696-6525

The Federal Archives and Records Center - Chicago 7358 South Pulaski Road
Chicago, Illinois   60629


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Some Italian names and addresses for continental genealogy:

Vital Statistics (Italy):

Instituto Centrale di Statistica
Via Cesare Balbo
16   Rome

Wills and some legal documents:

Archivio Notarile
Ispettatore Generale
Via Flaminia 160   Rome

Italian National Archives:

Archivio Centrale della Stato
Corse Rinnascimento
40   Rome


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APPENDIX II

Resource Materials for Secondary School Teachers
Teaching the Italian-American Experience

BOOKS FOR TEACHERS:

Amfitheatrof, Eric. The Children of Columbus: An Informal History of the Italians in the New World. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1973.

Barzini, Luigi. The Italians. New York: Antheneum Publishers, 1964.

_____________. From Caesar to the Mafia. Bantam Books, 1971.

Banks, James A., ed. Teaching Ethnic Studies: Concepts and Strategies, 1973.

Cordasco, Francesco and Eugene Buccioni. The Italians: Social Backgrounds of an American Group, 1974.

Cordasco, Francesco and Salvatore LaGumina. Italians in the United States: A Bibliography of Reports, Texts, Critical Studies and Related Materials, 1972.

Covello, Leonard. The Social Background of the Italo-American School Child. 1967.

D'Angelo, Pascal. Sons of Italy, 1975.

DeConde, Alexander. Half Bitter, Half Sweet, 1971.

Donato, Pietro Di. Christ in Concrete, 1975.

Ets, Marie Hall. Rosa, the Life of an Italian Immigrant, 1970.

Fenton, Edwin. Immigrants and Unions, A Case Study: Italians and American Labor, 1870-1920, 1975.

Fucilla, Joseph. The Teaching of Italian in the United States, 1967.

Foerster, Robert Franz. The Italian Emigration of Our Times, 1927.

Fermi, Laura. Atoms in the Family - My Life with Enrico Fermi, 1954.

Fermi, Laura. Illustrious Immigrants, the Intellectual Migration from Europe, 1930-1941, 1968.


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Garlick, Richard C., Jr. et al. Italy and the Italians in Washington's Time, 1933.

Garlick, Richard. Philip Mazzei, Friend of Jefferson, 1933.

Gallo, Patrick. Ethnic Alienation: The Italian Americans, 1974.

Gambino, Richard. Blood of My Blood, 1974.

Glazer, Nathan and Daniel Patrick Moynihan. Beyond the Melting Pot, 1963.

Greeley, Andrew M. Why Can't They Be Like Us? 1969.

Iorizzo, Luciano and Salvatore Mondello. The Italian American, 1971.

Kennedy, John F. A Nation of Immigrants, 1960.

La Gumina, Salvadore J. Vito Marcantonio, the People's Politician, 1969.

La Gumina, Salvatore, ed. WOP! A Documentary History of Anti-Italian Discrimination in the United States, 1973.

Levy, Mark R. and Michael S. Kramer. The Ethnic Factor, 1972.

Logatto, A.F. The Italians in America: A Chronology and Fact Book, 1972.

Marinacci, Barbara. They Came From Italy, 1967.

Mangione, Jerre. America is Also Italian, 1969.

Marchione, Margherita. Philip Mazzei, 1976.

Musmanno, Michael. The Story of the Italians in America, 1965.

Nelli, Humbert S. The Italians in Chicago, 1880-1930: A Study in Ethnic Mobility, 1970.

Odencrantz, Louise C. Italian Women in Industry, 1919 (Reprint, 1975).

Parenti, Michael John. Ethnic and Political Attitudes: A Depth Study of Italian Americans, 1962.

Panunzio, Constantine M. The Soul of an Immigrant, 1928 (Reprint, 1975).

Pisani, Lawrence Frank. The Italian in America, 1957.

Puzo, Mario. The Godfather, 1969.


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Puzo, Mario. The Fortunate Pilgrim.

Rolle, Andrew. The Immigrant Upraised, 1968.

Rolle, Andrew. The American Italians: Their History and Culture, 1972.

Rose, Philip M. The Italians in America, 1922.

Rose, Peter I. They and We: Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States, 1964.

Sartorio, Enrico C. Social and Religious Life of Italians in America, 1970.

Scarpaci, Jean A., ed. The Interaction of Italians and Jews in America, 1974.

Schiavo, Giovanni E. Four Centuries of Italian American History, 1952.

Schiavo, Giovanni. Italian American History, 2 volumes, 1947 and 1949.

Schiavo, Giovanni. The Italians in America Before the Civil War, 1934.

Tomasi, Silvano M. and Madeline Engels, ed. The Italian Experience In America, 1970.

Ulm, Richard Otis. The Italo-American Student in the American Public Schools, 1958.

Walsh, James. What Civilization Owes to Italy, 1930.

FILMSTRIPS:

The Italians: Minorities Have Made America Great, Set One. Distributor: Warren Schloat Productions, Inc., Tarrytown, New York.

Italian Doesn't Mean Mafia - The Italian American. Distributor: Creative Media Production, Chatham, New Jersey.

The Italian-Americans. Distributor: Anti-Defamation League of B'Nai B'rith, New York City.

Italians in America. Distributor: Anti-Defamation League of B'Nai B'rith, New York City.

The Story of the Italian American. Distributor: Eye-Gate House, Jamaica, New York.


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Little Italy from Immigration: The Dream and the Reality. Distributor: Warren Schloat Productions, Inc., Tarrytown, New York.

Ethnic Neighborhoods in Transition (Cleveland). Distributor: Department of Social Studies, Cleveland Public Schools.

Italian Americans, Part I and II in Ethnic Studies: The Peoples of America Series. Distributor: Educational Design Inc., New York.

MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS OF ITALIAN STUDIES:

The Italian Quarterly.

Italica (Published by the American Association of Teachers of Italian).

Italian American, State University College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, New York 14222.

The Italian Historical Society of America, 111 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, New York 11201.

Identity Magazine, P.O. Box 305, Dover, New Jersey 07801.

I-AM, The National Magazine for Italian Americans, P.O. Box 6350, Marion, Ohio 43302.

RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS:

Center for Immigration Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455. Dr. Rudolph J. Vecoli, Director.

Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, New York 10304. Sylvan M. Tomasi, C.S. Director.

Programma Di Lingua E Cultura Italiana Per La Communita Di New Jersey, Del Nord, Italian Catholic Center, 78 Market Street, Patterson, New Jersey 17505.

National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs, 4408 8th Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20071. Monsignor Geno Baroni, Director.

Roots of America: A Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Resource Guide for 7th, 8th and 9th Grade Social Studies Teachers. National Education Association Publication, 1975. Section on the Italian American Experience, pp. 107-123 contains brief topical introduction to Immigration, The Italian American Community, Discrimination, Contributions and Achievements and Resource Guide.


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This was the project developed by the New Jersey Educational Association and the National Educational Association Ethnic Heritage Program. Copies may be obtained by writing The New Jersey Educational Association, Instruction Division, Trenton, New Jersey 08608.

Curriculum Guidelines for Multiethnic Education, Position Statement, 1976. National Council for the Social Studies, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22209.

American Institute of Italian Studies, Eight East Sixty-Ninth Street, New York, New York 10021.


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TABLE A

Italian Immigration to the United States, 1820-1975

Year Number of
 Immigrants 
Year Number of
 Immigrants 
Year Number of
 Immigrants 
1820      30 1843     117 1866   1,382
———————
1821      63 1844     141 1867   1,624
1822      35 1845     137 1868      891
1823      33 1846     151 1869   1,489
1824      45 1847     164 1870   2,891
———————
1825      75 1848     241 1871   2,816
1826      57 1849     209 1872   4,190
1827      35 1850     431 1873   8,757
———————
1828      34 1851     447 1874   7,666
1829      23 1852     351 1875   3,631
1830        9 1853     555 1876   3,015
———————
1831      28 1854  1,263 1877   3,195
1832        3 1855  1,052 1878   4,344
1833     169 1856  1,365 1879   5,791
1834     105 1857  1,007 1880 12,354
———————
1835      60 1858  1,240 1881 15,401
1836     115 1859     932 1882 32,159
1837      36 1860  1,019 1883 31,792
———————
1838      86 1861     811 1884 16,510
1839      84 1862     566 1885 13,642
1840      37 1863     547 1886 21,315
———————
1841     179 1864     600 1887 47,622
1842     100 1865     942 1888 51,558


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Year Number of
Immigrants
Year Number of Immigrants Year Number of
Immigrants
1889  25,307 1914 283,738 1939   6,570
1890  52,003 1915   49,688 1940   5,302
——————— ———————
1891  76,005 1916   33,665 1941      450
1892  61,631 1917   34,596 1942      103
1893  72,145 1918     5,250 1943       49
1894  42,977 1919     1,884 1944      120
1895  35,427 1920   95,145 1945      213
———————
1896  68,060 1921 222,260 1946   2,636
1897  59,431 1922   40,319 1947 13,866
1898  58,613 1923   46,674 1948 16,075
1899  77,419 1924   56,246 1949 11,695
1900 100,135 1925     6,203 1950 12,454
——————— ———————
1901 135,996 1926     8,253 1951   8,958
1902 178,375 1927   17,297 1952 11,342
1903 230,622 1928   17,728 1953   8,432
1904 193,296 1929   18,008 1954 13,145
1905 221,479 1930   22,327 1955 30,272
———————
1906 273,120 1931   13,399 1956 40,430
1907 285,731 1932     6,662 1957 19,624
1908 128,503 1933     3,477 1958 23,115
1909 183,218 1934     4,374 1959 16,804
1910 215,537 1935     6,566 1960 13,369
——————— ———————
1911 182,882 1936     6,774 1961 18,956
1912 157,134 1937     7,192 1962 20,119
1913 265,542 1938     7,712 1963 16,175


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Year Number of
Immigrants
1964  12,769
1965  10,874
1966  26,447
1967  28,487
1968  25,882
1969  27,003
1970  27,369
———————
1971  22,137
1972  21,427
1973  22,151
1974  15,884
1975  11,522 (To June, 1975)

Sources: Annual Reports of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1970-1975.

Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Volume I, pp. 105-106, 1975.


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TABLE B

Italian Immigration to Cleveland

Year Population
of Cleveland
Immigrants
Arrived     
Total Italian
Immigrants    
Approximated
Italian Population
1856 47,000       20
1860 43,417       30
1870 92,829       35
1874 1,880   87       80
1875 1,323   12       87
1876    844   15       95
1877    739   23
1878    638   10
1879 1,010     7
1880 158,207 3,469   52     110
1881 167,413 8,846   23     123
1882 185,851 9,272   60     173
1883 194,684 4,555   16     179
1884 200,426 5,227   42     211
1885 205,446 2,726   30     231
1886 214,013 2,321 130     351
1887 223,000* 5,337   71     412
1888 230,000* 5,061 191     593
1889 250,000 4,730 194     707
1890 261,353 5,639 103     864
1891 5,985 125     975
1892 3,111   83  1,044

*Estimated Census conducted by the Cleveland Police Department


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Year Population
of Cleveland
Immigrants
Arrived     
Total Italian
Immigrants    
Approximated
Italian Population
1893 310,000*   3,326    121   1,151
1894 325,000*      790      54   1,191
1895 330,279*   2,104    146   1,323
1896   3,152    286   1,595
1897   1,642    226   1,807
1898 355,292   2,526    301   2,094
1899 380,000*   3,900    555   2,635
1900 381,768   4,590    439   3,065
1901   6,388    981   3,359
1902 10,752 1,219   3,591
1903 13,651 1,932   5,136
1904   7,086 1,464   5,913
1905 14,138 1,918   7,144
1906 16,275 2,836   9,293
1907 17,066 1,963 10,659
1910 560,663 10,836

Source: The Annual Report of the Departments of Government of the City of Cleveland, 1856-1910.

Another work by David E. Green entitled The Invasion of Cleveland by the Europeans (Cleveland: Mission Study Committee, 1906) included a rather inaccurate analysis of immigrant flow to the city with statistics compiled from the same Police Census statistics.

In regard to the number of Italian immigrants to Cleveland each year, Green provided the following statistics:

1871:   351 Italians 1876:   no figure
1872:   325 Italians 1877:     99 Italians
1873:   358 Italians 1878:   130 Italians
1874:   282 Italians 1879:   167 Italians
1875:   192 Italians 1880:   411 Italians


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We know, for example, that according to the Federal Census of 1880 there were only 110 Italians in Cleveland. If Green's figures are accurate then the yearly exodus of Italians from the city must have been phenomenal!


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TABLE C

Federal Population Figures on Cleveland
With Special Emphasis on the Italian Population, 1900-1970

Year       Cleveland
      Population
    Foreign Born
    Population
      Italian Born
      Population***
1900 381,768 163,570   3,065
1910 560,663 223,908 10,836
1920 762,026 310,241 18,730
1930 900,529 230,946 23,524
1940 878,336 179,784 20,961
1950 914,808 183,667 20,166
1960 876,050 175,134 19,317
1970 750,903 164,523 17,693

***The terminology used to indicate foreign population is often misleading. In the early census of this century it was usually "foreign born" which was used to refer to the city's foreign population. However, during the last census the terms "foreign stock," "foreign born," and "mixed or foreign parentage" are used thereby confusing the issue. Basically an Italian is so considered if he is foreign born or if his parents were foreign born. Therefore, a third generation Italian-American would not be considered as an Italian in this census.


Source: United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1900-1970.


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TABLE D

Distribution of Italian-Born Immigrants in Ohio
By Decade, 1850-1970

1850 174 1920 60,658
1860 407 1930 71,496
1870 564 1940 65,453
1880 1,064 1950 56,593
1890 2,857 1960 50,338
1900 11,321 1970 36,164
1910 41,620

Major Ohio Cities with Significant Italian Foreign Stock, 1970

Cleveland 17,693         Youngstown 8,472
Cincinnati 3,806 Canton 3,567
Columbus 6,018 Parma 3,712
Dayton 890 Toledo 2,280
Akron 6,369

Source: Characteristics of the Population, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Ohio, 1970, Volume 2, Table 141.


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TABLE E

Native Born and Italian Born Clevelanders Receiving
Public Assistance, 1874-1913

Year    Total on
   Outdoor Relief***
   Foreigners on
   Outdoor Relief
   Italians on
   Outdoor Relief
1874    618    451   3
1877 2,386 1,945   0
1878 1,568 1,201   0
1879 1,550 1,179   0
1880 1,156    984   0
1881 1,013    773   0
1882    985    776   0
1883 1,393 1,108   0
1884 1,920 1,652   3
1885 2,218 1,946   3
1886 1,686 1,419   8
1887 1,765 1,221 13
1888 1,701 1,365 15
1889 1,543 1,215 20
1890 1,552 1,238 18
1891 1,843 1,109 26
1892 2,074 1,603 24

***Outdoor relief was public assistance to the needy either on a temporary or sustained basis. It included the following items which were distributed through the city's Department of the Infirmary: coal, meat, shoes, soap, tea, coffee, corn meal, railroad passes, flour, sugar, potatoes, rice, beans, peas, barley and burial expenses.


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Year    Total on
   Outdoor Relief***
   Foreigners on
   Outdoor Relief
   Italians on
   Outdoor Relief
1893 4,628 3,499   45
1894 6,011 4,623   82
1895 3,582 2,670   44
1896 2,250 1,708   28
1897 2,552 1,905   42
1898 2,147 1,569   30
1899 2,708 1,988   57
1900 2,527 1,850   61
1901 2,297 1,603   49
1902 2,175 1,477   55
1903 2,308 1,574   57
1904 2,603 1,790   68
1905 2,191 1,490   59
1906 1,946 1,347   70
1907 2,134 1,435   83
1908 197
1909 3,426 2,482 197
1910 2,544 1,799 159
1911 7,765 2,139 127
1912 1,816
1913 1,393 1,121   72
1914 2,223 1,872 139

Source: The Annual Report of the Departments of Government of the City of Cleveland: Department of the Infirmary


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TABLE F

Italian Arrests in Cleveland, 1870-1902

Year       Total
      Arrests
   Total Foreigners
   Arrested             
   Total Italians
   Arrested       
1870   4,004 2,554     2
1874   9,571 8,563   32
1875   8,823 4,685   18
1876   8,407 1,046   19
1877   7,845 3,892   24
1878   7,151 3,281   22
1879   6,539 3,042   12
1880   7,432 3,469   27
1881   7,465 3,628   29
1882   6,741 3,377   14
1883   7,254 3,577   36
1884   7,271 3,540   42
1885   6,882 3,409   29
1886   6,732 3,409   24
1887   8,588 4,083   27
1888   8,731 4,026   38
1889 10,377 4,644   34
1890   9,616 4,199   55
1891 11,133 4,967   66
1892 10,717 4,941   81
1893   9,368 4,227   56
1894   9,751 4,016   85
1895 11,006 4,449   80


350

Year       Total
      Arrests
   Total Foreigners
   Arrested             
   Total Italians
   Arrested       
1896 13,491 5,302 107
1897 14,481 5,601 121
1898 14,452 5,571 193
1899 15,674 5,679 176
1900 19,923 7,227 205
1901 19,219 7,385 237
1902 18,236 7,350 261

Source: The Annual Report of the Departments of Government of the City of Cleveland, 1870-1902.

Beginning in 1870 and ending in 1902 the Police Department of the City of Cleveland annually published its detailed accounting of the year's criminal activity within the city. For the 32 years studied the police department listed individual crimes and the number of occurrences of each. It then also listed by nativity the number of individuals from the major 15 ethnic groups within the city arrested and charged with a crime.***

Numerically the Italians during this period were not a major criminal threat to the peace and security of the city. Indeed, their crime statistics were usually less than 5% of the foreign population. If the above "official" figures of the police department are relatively accurate there was a great deal of "ethnic" criminality in Cleveland, but the groups which contributed most to this situation were not the Italians, during this period at any rate.

The statistical information stops at 1902, for in that year the police department no longer supplied the same kind of numerical breakdown as it had, and only designated "white" and "colored" criminal figures.


***Crimes in the reports were never specified for individual groups, but in 1910, for example, there were 7185 arrests with the following crimes comprising more than half of the charges:
intoxication 1,089
assault and battery 1,361
petty larceny    711
vagrancy    258
gambling    206
violating the automobile law    190


351

TABLE G

Population Change in Italian-Born Residents by Census Tract, 1910-1970

Year Big Italy Little Italy Collinwood   Mount Carmel
  (East)
  Blue Rock
  Springs
St. Rocco's   Kinsman
  Road
  Woodland
  Hills
1910 4,429 3,090      61    765 173     52
1920 4,297 3,460 1,269 1,664 499    581
1930 2,065 2,227 2,106 2,042 759 2,836
1940 1,304 1,612 1,800 1,628 655 2,926
1950    505 1,017 1,238 1,266 869 2,248
1960    180 1,965 2,371 2,164 804 3,262
1970     ***    975 1,271   247 597 1,602

***Census figures determine this area to be without a significant foreign born population.


Source: Census Tracts: Cleveland, Ohio, 1950-1970.
Howard Whipple Green, "A Sheet-a-Week," December 16, 1943.


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