The financial panic of 1857 had a serious effect, to a certain degree, upon the prosperity of Cleveland, but was followed by no such disastrous general wreckage as that of 1837. Happily, there were no failures among the Cleveland banks, the principal effect being a temporary stagnation of business, and the refusal of most people to make investments during the unsettled times. The recovery was general, and by 1860 the business of Cleveland no longer felt its disturbance.

The doctrine of secession, in a local way, was brought up for discussion in 1858, when some twenty-five residents of the eastern part of the city attempted to have that territory detached from incorporated Cleveland and attached to the township of East Cleveland. A petition was sent to the State Legislature, asking for this change. This was met by a remonstrance, which declared that the "proposed dismemberment" was not desired by a majority of the people affected by it, and that the names attached to the petition did not "represent men of wealth and possessions." The measure failed of success.

The growth of Cleveland, and consequently the legal business of Cuyahoga County, had for some time foreshadowed the necessity for increased courthouse facilities, and action was taken in the period now under consideration. It was decided to clear the Public Square permanently of official buildings, ands accordingly a new structure and a new site were agreed upon. This latter was situated just north of the northwest corner of the Public Square, on the north side of Rockwell street. On November 10, 1857, the County Commissioners contracted with George P. Smith and James Pannell to erect a sub-


stantial stone edifice, three stories high, at a cost of $152,500. This building, now called "the old court-house," filled all the requirements of county business until 1875, when increasing demand for more room was answered by the erection of a large and imposing addition. Ground was purchased on Seneca street, running back to the old building, and a contract let for a new court-house, at a cost of $250,000. It was nearly square, running seventy feet in each direction with rooms for various officials and the courts in the Seneca front, and a jail in the rear. A still further increase of facilities was made in 1884, when two stories were added to the old building, at a cost of nearly $100,000.

drawing of The Proposed New Courthouse

The Proposed New Courthouse

The Cleveland schools also, by 1859, had outgrown the methods of management described in a previous chapter, and in the year named the old order gave way to the new.


By special enactment of the Legislature, the election of members of a Board of Education was for the first time placed in the hands of the people, one member being elected from each ward, one-half of the wards electing annually. Although the Board of Education now held the same relation to the people that was held by the City Council, the former was subject to the latter, in several respects. The Council was still required to "provide and support such number and grade of schools as may be necessary to furnish a good common school education to all the children," and to support two high schools. The Board was required to certify to the Council an estimate of the amount necessary to be raised for school purposes, but the Council might, at pleasure, levy a tax for an amount greater or less than the amount thus estimated, provided it did not exceed the limit fixed in the general law of the State.

drawing of Kentucky Street School Building, 1850

Kentucky Street School Building, 1850

The Board of Education had the management and control of the schools, employed and dismissed teachers, fixed their compensation, and furnished all necessary supplies and apparatus; but could not expend more than fifty dollars for school furniture or repairs for any one school or school building, without first obtaining the consent of the Council. In like manner, the approval of the city legislature was required, in fixing the boundaries of school districts.

In April, 1868, another act was passed "to provide for the support and regulation of the public schools of Cleveland," by which all restraints of the Board of Education on the part of the City Council were removed, saving


One—whenever additional school room was needed, it became necessary for the Board to recommend to the Council the "purchase of proper sites, and the erection of suitable school houses thereon," and the Council was then required to act on such recommendation, without delay, and, in case of approval, to "provide in such manner as shall seem most expedient such sums of money as may be necessary to carry the same into effect." This change in legal power gave the Board complete control of the schools, with the right to levy taxes without restriction of the Council, and allowing the latter power only in the purchase of real estate and the erection of buildings.

In May, 1873, a general law was passed by the Legislature, whereby all special enactments pertaining to the management of schools in town, cities and special districts were entirely superseded. This gave the City Council no voice whatever in school affairs.

The members of the first Board of Education, elected by the people, were as follows: Charles Bradburn, Allyne Maynard, Charles S. Reese, William H. Stanley, Nathan P. Payne, W. P. Fogg, Lester Hayes, J. A. Thorne, F. B. Pratt, Daniel P. Rhodes and George R. Vaughn.

The dawn of 1860 found the school system of the city in a shape that produced good results for the present, and offered larger rewards for the future. The schools on both sides of the river had been consolidated, a board elected by the people was in control, a superintendent gave his whole time to oversight, a high school was in progress upon the east side of the river, and another on the west side. During the War of the Rebellion, and running on up to 1865, the schools kept growth apace with the rest of the city, but during that period little was done in connection with them which is of general historical interest.

The incumbent of the office of school superintendent from 1863 to 1866 was Anson Smyth. In the year last named, he was succeeded by Andrew J. Rickoff. In 1867, when East Cleveland was annexed, its schools came under


control of the city. In 1868, supervising principals were appointed, to give immediate direction to the teachers in the grammar and primary departments. Consequent on this change, women principals were placed in charge of the various school buildings, in place of men, as had been the custom at an earlier date. In 1870, the study of German was introduced. In 1874, a normal school was established, for the instruction of those who desired to become teachers. In 1877, the Board of Education contracted for the erection of a new high school building on Willson avenue, near cedar avenue, and when completed, it was rightly regarded as one of the finest structures of it kind in Ohio

photograph of The Central High School Building

The Central High School Building

A notable and suggestive feature of 1859 was the organ-

Facing Page

The Public Square, 1873

The Public Square, 1873


ization of Cleveland’s first street railway—the East Cleveland Railway Company—and in 1860 the road was opened for business, between Bank street and Willson avenue. On the 6th of October of that year, the president of the company, Henry S. Stevens, in presence of a number of gentlemen associated with him in the enterprise, broke ground as the eastern terminus, and then "invited the stockholders and patrons present to meet at the other end of the route, near Water street, three weeks from that day, to celebrate the completion of the first street railroad in Cleveland, and in the State." In 1863, an extension was completed through to East Cleveland, and five years later the branch line on Ohio and Garden streets was set in operation. The Kinsman Street Railway Company, with a line running from Bank street out Kinsman street (now Woodland avenue), was also organized in 1859, and a portion of the line built. The West Side Railway Company came into being in 1863, and during the year following, a route was opened over Detroit street. The Superior & St. Clair Street Railway Company was organized in 1867, the Rocky River Railroad Company in 1868, the Broadway & Newburgh Railroad Company in 1873, the South Side Railway Company in 1874, the Woodland Hills Avenue Railroad in 1874, and the Superior street Railway Company in 1875. Among these pioneer organizations in the street railway system of Cleveland were several that had a great influence in developing Cleveland, and in placing her business and manufacturing districts in touch with the residence portions. To these lines, more than to anything else, perhaps, is due the fact that Cleveland is a city of homes, and that somewhere within reach of daily business or employment can be found a location for home-owning and home-building that is not beyond the financial means of the most humble laborer. A city in which the great majority are their own landlords, is built upon a rock of stability that nothing can shake.

Carrying this record down to the present day, we find


that the street railway system of Cleveland received a great impetus in 1879, when Tom L. Johnson came to the city. At that time, the Brooklyn Street Railway, always an unfortunate property, was in sore straits. Mr. Johnson bought it for a song, and at once infused live business methods into its management. He gave it a double track on Pearl street, obtained the right, a little later, to bring it across the Viaduct to the Public Square, and finally, in 1883, extended it by way of Scovill avenue to Woodland Cemetery. He also gave it branches on both sides of the river—one on Clark avenue, from Pearl street to the C. C. C. & I. Railroad tracks, the other on Willson avenue, from Scovill avenue to Beyerle Park, in Newburg. Transfers were given when desired, and the fare for the entire trip was reduced to five cents. In 1885, Mr. Johnson bought the South Side Railway, and, modernizing its equipment and service, made it a part of his system. It had been operated with cars of a primitive make. When the Central Viaduct was completed, the route of the South Side line was changed, and the hilly road on Jennings avenue and Seneca street abandoned. In 1889 and 1890, the present Scranton avenue line, running from Superior street through Seneca street and Scranton avenue to Clark avenue, was built.

These aggressive tactics naturally stirred the rival roads to action, and their managers met the Johnson improvements promptly. In 1875, the East Cleveland Railroad Company had experimented with the Knight-Bentley system, one that employed a conduit, on its Garden street line, east of Willson avenue, but with no success. No further attempt to use electricity was made until 1888, when the same company adopted the trolley system on its Euclid avenue line, east of Willson avenue. Later in the year, the line was electrically equipped to the Square, and its adoption on all the lines of the company soon followed. The Brooklyn Street Railroad Company adopted electricity as its motive power in June, 1888, and the Broadway & Newburgh Street Railway Company followed suit, in


a few months. The expense of changing the motive power of the various roads to electricity was very great, because it rendered useless their old rolling stock, and demanded heavier and more expensive rails. According to the companies, the expenses of operating were decidedly increased, but they admitted a profit from the augmented traffic attendant upon te improved card and service.

The Superior Street Railroad, which was first operated in September, 1874, was extended, in 1885, along Payne avenue, from its intersection at Superior street to Russell avenue, by way of Willson and Lexington avenues. The next year it was extended along Hough avenue, to Wade Park, its present eastern terminus. In 1889, the Superior and the Payne lines, previously operated by horse-power, were converted into cable roads, at an enormous expense, the time occupied in the operation being two years. At this time, the Cleveland City Cable Railway Company was organized. It purchased the Superior and Payne lines, also the St. Clair Street Railway. This last was equipped with electricity, and extended out St. Clair street to Glenville, taking the place of the old Glenville road.

In 1885, the old Kinsman Street Railroad, then known as the Woodland Avenue Railroad, and owned chiefly by Stillman Witt and D. P. Eells, was consolidated with the West Side Railroad Company, and the combined line was knows as the Woodland Avenue & West Side Street Railroad Company. No change of passengers was made at the Square,--cars ran the entire length of the line. In 1893, having seen the benefit of consolidation, proposals were made by this company to the Cleveland City Cable Railway Company, looking to a combination of the two properties. The bargain was completed in June, 1893, and the new company named the Cleveland City Railway Company.

In April of the same year, 1893, the Cleveland Electric Railway Company was organized, by the consolidation of the East Cleveland Street Railroad Company, the Broad-


way & Newburg Street Railway Company, the Brooklyn Street Railroad Company, and the South Side Street Railroad Company. The East Cleveland Street Railroad Company, it may be stated, then consisted of four lines, the Euclid avenue, the Central avenue, the Cedar avenue (built in 1882), and the Wade Park (built in 1889). These consolidations placed the street railway traffic of the city in the hands of but two companies. They operate about one hundred miles of double tracks, embraced in twenty-three different lines. Of these, the Cleveland City Electric Railway Company operate seventeen lines; the remaining six are the property of the Cleveland City Railway Company.

An event which caused great excitement in Cleveland, in 1859, was the trial of the Oberlin-Wellington rescue cases, in the United States Court, in this city. The trouble had occurred in the places named, but, as the whole matter was transferred bodily here, at a time when feeling on the slavery question was running at it highest, some reference thereto seems not only proper, but necessary. In 1856, a number of slaves held by John G. Bacon, of Kentucky, escaped, and started for the North. Among them was one named John, and, in 1858, word reached Bacon that the runaway could be found near Oberlin, which was then the center of Ohio Abolitionism. An agent, named Anderson Jennings, was sent to Oberlin, to claim and carry back the fugitive. He succeeded in making the capture, and started south with his man, but at Wellington, on September 15th, was surrounded by a mob of perhaps a thousand men, who rescued the slave, and sent him on the way to certain liberty. An appeal was made to the United States courts, and in December, 1858, indictments were returned against twenty-seven of the leading residents of that section of Ohio.

They were brought to Cleveland, and on April 5, 1859, one of their number, Simeon Bushnell, was put on trial. Intense excitement was caused, not only in this city, but all through Northern Ohio, while the proceedings were


watched from all parts of the country. Judge H. V. Willson occupied the bench, and George W. Belden was the district attorney. George Bliss assisted in the prosecution; while the defense was represented by a remarkable strong array of talent—R. P. Spalding, F. T. Backus, A. G. Riddle and S. O. Griswold. The offense charged was "rescuing a fugitive from service," and evidence of the clearest character was shown to prove the guilt of the accused, under the laws then existing. The trial lasted ten days, a verdict of guilty was rendered, and the sentence was a fine of six hundred dollars, with sixty days’ imprisonment in the county jail. The other cases were disposed of with fines and imprisonment for some, and dismissal in the case of others. The indignation of the public was great against the laws that made such convictions possible, and the trials greatly increased the feeling against slavery in this community.206

The chief event of local interest connected with 1860 was the erection and dedication of the monument to Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, in commemoration of his decisive victory in the battle of Lake Erie.207 The idea of this grateful tribute originated with Harvey Rice, then a member of the City Council, who, in June 1857, introduced in that body resolutions in relation to the subject. A select committee of five were empowered to contract for the erection of a monument to Perry. "in commemoration of his heroic services, in achieving the victory on Lake Erie, in the year 1813." To meet the expenses, the committee were authorized to solicit subscriptions from


the citizens. The resolutions were unanimously adopted, and the following gentlemen were named as that committee: Harvey Rice, O. M. Oviatt, J. M. Coffinberry, J. Kirkptrick and C. D. Williams.

On the 14th of October, the committee contracted with T. Jones & Sons, of Cleveland, to erect the monument. They agreed to do the work for six thousand dollars (increased somewhat thereafter), for the payment of which they were willing to rely on the voluntary subscriptions of the citizens of Cleveland, "taking the risk of obtaining the required amount on themselves."208

photograph of The Perry Monument

The Perry Monument

Arrangements were made with William Walcutt, to design and model the statue. The marble was shipped from Italy, and the work done in Cleveland. The pedestal was constructed of Rhode Island granite, twelve feet high, wile the figure was to be eight feet and two inches high, so as to appear life-size to the eye, when placed upon the pedestal, making the entire height of the monument, including the base, twenty-five feet.

The day set for the unveiling and public inauguration,


was September 10, 1860, the forty-seventh anniversary of Perry’s victory. Formal invitations were extended, on behalf of the city, to the governor and other State officials of Rhode Island—where Perry was born, and whose soil contained his remains,--to be present and assist in the exercises. The Governor of Ohio, and other distinguished gentlemen, were also invited. It was ordered by the City Council that the statue should be placed in the center of the Public Square, at the intersection of Ontario and Superior streets.

Governor Sprague, and the other officials of Rhode Island, arrived in the city on September 8th, and were escorted to the Angier House by the Cleveland Grays and Light Guard, and also the Wayne Guards, of Erie, Pa. A speech of welcome was made by William Dennison, Governor of Ohio, and was responded to by Governor Sprague.

The 10th was ushered in by the ringing of bells, the firing of cannon , and other demonstrations of public joy. Streams of visitors, to the number of one hundred thousand, poured in from all directions. A procession of imposing length and character was formed, and reached the Public Square at one in the afternoon. "A large area"—I quote from the record above referred to—"had been roped off, in the center of which was the statue, on a green mound, enclosed by an iron railing. To the west of the statue was placed a large platform, capable of holding several hundred persons. This was appropriated to the invited guests. A smaller raised platform, in front, was for the speakers, and survivors of the battle;. Immediately in front was a lower platform, excellently arranged, for the convenience of reporters. The statue was veiled with the American flag."

The exercises were opened with prayer, by Rev. R. Perry, one of the relatives of the Commodore. The sculptor, Mr. Walcutt, then entered the enclosure and removed the flag, amid the cheers of the assembled thousands. He followed with brief remarks, and the speech of presenta-


tion to the city was then made by Harvey Rice, chairman of the monument committee, who was responded to by Mayor Senter.

Hon. George Bancroft, orator of the day, was next introduced, and spoke with that rare eloquence and patriotic thought that characterized all his public efforts. A series of reminiscences were given by Dr. Usher Parsons, surgeon of Perry’s flag-ship "Lawrence," and a brief speech was made by Captain Thomas Brownell, pilot of the "Ariel," which took part in the same battle, Oliver Hazard Perry, the only surviving son of the Commodore, was then called upon and responded. The monument was than dedicated by the Masons, according to their ritual, and an ode sung by Ossian E. Dodge, the celebrated vocalist.

A mock battle on the lake, in which the main events of the great struggle of 1813 were reproduced, succeeded the inauguration ceremonies, while a Masonic banquet, at the Weddell House, was given in the evening. A reception by the governors of Ohio and Rhode Island, and a farewell dinner, were among the later features of one of the greatest, most patriotic and successful events of a public character that has been anywhere recorded in the long and eventful history of Cleveland.

Things of tremendous moment followed swiftly upon this patriotic endeavor to do honor to a hero of a war that meant so much for the preservation of the American nation; and the people who listened to the stirring speeches of this day of celebration, were soon put to a supreme test of patriotic devotion, to a cause as great as that for which Perry fought.

The great political contest of 1860, the election of Lincoln, and the signs of trouble that overcast all the horizon to the southward, belong to the history of our country, and cannot be related here. There was no section of the whole great, willing, patriotic and enthusiastic North that responded to the call of the Union for defense and support more readily and willingly than Cleveland, and that por-


tion of the West of which it is the metropolis. This was not a spasmodic effort, in the first burst of enthusiasm, but was continuous all through the war.

An event occurred in the early days of 1861 that served to increase the popular detestation of slavery, and the feeling against those by whom it was supported. This was the capture, in Cleveland, of a runaway slave-girl named Lucy, and her return to bondage, only a few weeks before the guns of Sumter sounded the knell of the system of which she was a victim.

Early on the morning of January 19, 1861, a posse of United States officers, under the leadership of Seth A. Abbey, a deputy United States marshal, entered by force the residence of L. A. Benton, on Prospect street, and arrested this young mulatto girl, who had been employed as a domestic, and who was claimed by William S. Goshorn, of Wheeling, Va., as an escaped slave. She was locked up in the county jail, and as soon as news of the arrest spread throughout the city, excitement rose to a white heat. A great mob gathered about the jail, threatening to set the prisoner at liberty by force. An application for a writ of habeas corpus was made by R. P. Spalding, A. G. Riddle and C. W. Palmer, acting in behalf of the girl.

The writ was passed upon by Probate Judge Tilden, on the morning of January 21st. He decided that the sheriff, an officer of the county, had no right to hold her, and ordered her release. She was taken in charge by the United States marshal, who was compelled to swear in a hundred and fifty specials, to assist in the preservation of the peace. The girl, with difficulty, was taken to the United States building, and but little would have been necessary to precipitate a bloody riot. Her case was heard before United States Commissioner White, and it was shown that, under the United States laws then existing, the defense had no shadow of a case—all that her able attorneys could do, was to make those laws and their execution, odious in the eyes of the public. She was awarded to the control of the slave-holder. An attempt was made


by benevolent persons in Cleveland to purchase her freedom, but the owner, although offered double her value in the market, refused to sell her, and persisted in carrying her back to Virginia. She was taken to the train by an armed guard, and her owner succeeded in getting her safely to Wheeling. It is said, with probable truth, that this was the last slave ever returned to the South, under the fugitive slave law.209

The excitement attending this case, had hardly died away before the people were aroused to new fervor by a visit, on February 15, of President-elect Lincoln, who was en route to Washington, to be inaugurated to the office of President. His reception was enthusiastic, thirty thousand and more people turning out in a storm to meet him; a great procession escorted him to his hotel, while business blocks and residences were covered with flags, and other patriotic insignia.

photograph of Soldiers' Monument in Woodland Cemetery

Soldiers' Monument in Woodland Cemetery

When the call for aid came from this same President,


some weeks later, the answer, so far as Cleveland was concerned, was immediate and effective. A mass meeting was called in Melodeon Hall. General Jabez Fitch, General John Crowell, Hon. R. P. Spalding, and Hon. D. K. Cartter spoke. Two days later, the Grays departed, in answer to the President’s call for men. Camp Taylor was established, and the city took on a military air. On May 3rd, a conference of the governors of Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Michigan and Indiana was held at the Angier House, to concert measures for the defense of their country. On the 6th of the same month, the Seventh Regiment departed; on the 14th, the Lincoln Guards were organized; in November, the Forty-first Regiment marched away with flying colors. The Home Guards were organized; clerks, merchants, bankers, laborers, all urged by the same patriotic impulse, drilled side by side, that they might be ready, if the need arose.

To write a history of the soldiers, the companies, the regiments, that Cleveland sent into the field, would more than fill a volume of this size. To tell that story in a few pages, would be unjust, and so far inadequate that it were better unattempted. The city and her sons covered themselves with glory, upon nearly every field where our flag was carried; hundreds of them gave up their lives in their country’s defense; many names that Cleveland will long remember, were written upon the tablet of fame. The enduring monument that has been erected, in the very heart of our city, is but a feeble reminder of the love and gratitude in which these brave sons of Cuyahoga are held.210


drawing of Hospital Camp, Cleveland

Hospital Camp, Cleveland

Not alone by the sending of her sons to the front, did Cleveland show her patriotism. In many ways, those at home gave of their labor and substance to carry on the good work for the Union. The women of Cleveland were the first to make use of such opportunities as presented themselves. Five days after the call for troops, on April 20th, they assembled to offer their services, wherever they could be used. The Ladies’ Aid Society was organized. It soon became the head and front for work of this character, through all this section, and was known as the Soldiers’ Aid Society of Northern Ohio. Subordinate societies were organized in all directions. By the 1st of July, 1862, three hundred and twenty-five societies had been organized as its branches. Contributions poured in from all directions, and a steady stream was sent southward, for the help and comfort of the soldiers in the field. In February, 1864, the Northern Ohio Sanitary Fair was organized under the management of the society. An immense structure was built on Public Square, and so successfully was the fair managed that the receipts were about one hundred thousand dollars, with not over one-fourth of that sum for expenses. The work was carried on until


the end of the war, with a vigor and patriotism that shed honor, for all time, upon those who were connected therewith. The city naturally felt the effects of the war, in common with all the country, but met with no great reverse or disaster because of it. Municipal and business affairs were carried on as of old.

Attention should now be turned to various matters of general interest. The discovery of oil in Western Pennsylvania attracted the attention of Cleveland speculators and capitalists, and before long a number of small refineries were in operation in this city. Among them was a small firm, formed in 1861, by John D. Rockefeller and Henry M. Flagler, which grew by push and absorption of its rivals until 1870, when a stock company was formed, under the name of the Standard Oil Company, which made this city its headquarters, and before long controlled the oil trade of the country.211

The size and importance of the city now demanded that a better and more adequate fire department must be furnished, as the old volunteer system had been far outgrown. It was decided by the City Council, in 1863, to reorganize


the department and place it upon a paid basis. The first Council Committee on Fire and Water was appointed in January of that year, and consisted of J. D. Palmer, J. J. Benton and William Meyer. During April, an ordinance was passed, creating a paid steam fire department. Meanwhile, three steamers had been bought, the first of which had been placed in service December 217, 1862; two others in February, 1863, while a fourth was purchased in June of the same year. The chief engineer at this time was James A. Craw. The steamers were honored with the following appellations: No. 1, I. U. Masters; No. 2, J. J. Benton; No. 3, William Meyer; No. 4, J. D. Palmer. Mazeppa Hook and Ladder No. 1. In 1864, another steamer (N. P. Payne) was added, and the three remaining volunteer companies disbanded. By the spring of 1865, the city was in possession of five fully-equipped engine companies, with hose reels attached to each, and one hook and ladder truck. The companies were located as follows: No. 1, Frankfort street; No. 2, Champlain street; No. 3, Huntington street; No. 4, Church street; No. 5, Phelps street; Hook and Ladder with No. 1, on Frankfort street. The entire force numbered fifty-three men, one chief engineer, five captains, five engineers, five firemen, eleven drivers, twenty-five pipemen and one tiller-man.

Step by step the efficiency of the department was increased. Fire hydrants and reservoirs increased in number. A fire alarm telegraph service was added in 1864. Little further was done in way of fire legislation until 1867, when the City Council passed an ordinance which created the offices of first and second assistant engineers. The steamer "James Hill" was added in the same year, and other engines, companies, and engine houses were created, from time to time, as the growth of the city rendered necessary. In 1872, a Protection Company was added to the service, with four men, and a wagon fully equipped with canvas covers, etc., to be used for the protection of good and household furniture. In 1864, James


Hill became chief of the department; he was removed in 1874. John A. Bennett, first assistant chief, was then promoted to chief, and he, in turn, was succeeded by James W. Dickinson, then assistant, in 1880. In 1886, Cleveland’s first fire-boat, the "Joseph L. Weatherly," was built and placed in service upon the river.212

By an act of the Legislature, passed on April 29, 1873, the management of the department passed into the hands of a Board of Fire Commissioners, composed of five members, to hold for a term of five years. This was amended in March, 1874, and the board made to consist of the mayor of the city, the chairman of the City Council Committee on Fire and Water, and three citizens, who should be nominated by the mayor, with the approval of the Council The first board consisted of Charles A. Otis, mayor; A. T. Van Tassel, chairman of the Council Committee; H. D. Coffinberry, W. H. Hayward, and H. W. Luetkemeyer. Under the changes made in the form of municipal government—to be related under a later date—the management of the department passed into the hands of a director of fire service. The extent to which the department has grown, may be understood from the following figures, taken from the annual report of the department, made in the beginning of 1895, for the preceding year" The loss from fires during the year amounted to $592,714.90, which was over one million less than in 1892, the reduction being largely due to the increase in the number of engine houses. The department answered 1,000 alarms. New buildings had been erected in the city to the number of 2,622, at an estimated cost of $4,171,690. During 1894, there had been added to the service three new hook and ladder companies, four new engine companies, one water tower, and the new fire-boat


"John H. Farley." The fire boat "J. L. Weatherly," heretofore described, had been replaced by a new boat, "The Clevelander." There were 352 men employed by the department proper, with 8 additional serving as building inspectors, electrician, etc. The apparatus in actual service consisted of 20 steam fire engines, one fire-boat, twenty-two hose wagons, two hose carriages, nine hook and ladder trucks, one aerial ladder, one water tower, four two-wheeled chemical engines, seven officers’ buggies, one director’s buggy, one boiler inspector’s two-wheeled cart, two telegraph wagons, one telegraph pole truck, eighteen exercise wagons, and three delivery wagons. These figures suggest that Cleveland has, indeed, traveled a long distance, in the way of fire service improvement, since those early days when the irate taxpayers criticized the expenditure of a few hundred dollars, for the purchase of one little hand-engine.

Returning once more to the general narrative, we find the spring of 1865 bringing to Cleveland, as to the entire land, a great joy and a great sorrow—the triumphant end of the war, and the martyrdom of Abraham Lincoln.

The wild joy over the victory was tempered with sorrow for the loss; and when the body of Lincoln, on its last homeward journey, lay in state in the city, all classes united to do honor to his memory, and the whole city draped itself in mourning, and gave no thought to pleasure or business, until the sacred form had been carried on to it last resting place.

The growing importance of Cleveland, as a manufacturing point and center of distribution, was emphasized by the Board of Trade, in 1866, in the publication, for the first time, of anything like a detailed statement of the amount of business done here in any one year. The figures here given for 1865 are taken from that work,213 and their presentation at this point seems especially pertinent,


as the real revival after the war had just commenced, and Cleveland was placing her foot on that ladder of successful manufacturing that has carried her up to such wonderful things.

Taking up the general results, as presented in these reports, we find that the amount of coal shipped to this market during the five preceding years had varied from 400,000 to 900,000 tons; the total for 1865 was 465,550 tons. The aggregate value of the iron ore trade for the year was $1,179,200. Of pig iron and scrap, there were sold and used here about 23,000 tons, of a value of $1,051,000. Of pig iron controlled and sold by the Cleveland parties, but not coming into this market, the amount was about 29,000, of a value of $1,450,000. Of manufactured wrought iron, the aggregate sales of railroad iron, bar, plate, hoop, sheet, spikes, nails, etc., were over $6,000,000, of which a large portion was manufactured here. There were then, in or near the city (Newburg had not been annexed), two blast furnaces, six rolling mills, two forges, eight foundries, three spike, nail, rivet, nut and washer factories, employing three thousand hands, and with an aggregate capital of some three million dollars. Their product for 1865 was as follows: 20,510 tons railroad iron, 7,925 tons merchant iron, 2,250 tons forgings, 705 tons boiler and tank iron, 4,627 tons nuts, washers, rivets, nails, spikes and bolts; 8,500 tons gas and water pipe, car wheels, etc. In lumber, total feet received, 84,038,160; shingles, 54,744,850; lath, 14,153,000; cedar posts, 50,000. The total amount of business in the hide and leather trade for the year reached about a million and a half of dollars. There were engaged in the trade five wholesale hide and leather dealers, about as many more dealing exclusively in hides; three tanneries, and three sheepskin factories. There were some thirty established refineries of crude petroleum, with an aggregate capital of over $1,500,000, and employing over three hundred workmen. Aggregate capacity, 18,090 to 2,000 barrels per 24 hours; total value of petroleum products, not less than $4,500,-


The wholesale dry good trade was set down "in millions," but no figures are given. Boot and shoe sales, $1,250,000. Manufactures and sale of clothing, from two and a half to three million dollars. Cattle packed, 25,300 head; hogs, 18,850. Near ten million pounds of wool were received. The banking interests were represented by a capital of over $2,250,000, with an average circulation of $1,750,000, and average deposits of $3,700,000. Over sixty steam engines were turned out, 40 boilers, and as many stills for oil. The general value, in these and allied lines, reached a half million dollars. The machine car shops used up stock to the value of $700,000. The manufacture of railroad cars reached a value of half a million dollars. Stoves to the number of 18,000 were made. Agricultural implements to the value of $350,000; marble and stone works, $400,000; 600 tons of white lead made; 50,000 gallons of lard oil made; 547,000 pounds of stearine candles ; 212,000 barrels of flour; cigars, a product valued at $600,000; 43,000,000 feet of gas were produced, and 90,000 bushels of coke; malting and brewing business, $800,000; lightning rods sold to the value of $131,000; burr mill stones, $75,000; 20,000 kegs of powder made; 7,000.000 bricks made; hats and caps,. $50,000. Estimates upon some other lines of business, upon which exact figures could not be obtained, were added, as follows: Wines and liquors, $2,098,600; groceries, $4,840,000; hardware, $1,417,000; carpets, $230,000; crockery and glassware, $610,000; furniture, $600,000; jewelry, $375,000; books, etc. $800,000; harness and trunks, $200,000; ship stores, $200,000; sewing machines, $250,000; shipbuilding, $300,000; drugs, $913,000; railroad


receipts, $10,500,000; telegraph and express receipts, $600,000; miscellaneous business, $51,000,000.214

This very gratifying summary of the business of Cleveland for 1865, proves that the city had been fairly set upon the highway of commercial and manufacturing importance. These results speak well for a community that had begun to take on the first forms of villagehood but fifty years before, and justify the wisdom of those who selected the mouth of the Cuyahoga river as the place upon which to plant the capital of the Reserve.

drawing of Old Central Police Station

Old Central Police Station

Perhaps the main event of local importance, of 1866, was the establishment of the metropolitan police system. A law passed by the Ohio Legislature, at its previous session, went into effect on May 1st of that year. Under its provisions, the power which before had been lodged in the hands of the mayor and city marshal, with the management of the funds in the City


Council, passed to the Board of Police Commissioners, consisting of the mayor and four others, appointed by the governor of the State. This board was to have charge of all police matters. Police officers were to hold office during good behavior, and other reforms were inaugurated. The force at this time numbered fifty, and the expenditures for the year were $51,710. The first board consisted of H. M. Chapin, mayor; W. P. Fogg, James Barnett, Philo Chamberlain, and Nelson Purdy. The law was so changed in 1872, that the board members were elected directly by the people, and the first commissioners under this system were John M. Sterling, Jr., Jere E. Robinson, George Saal, and J. C. Schenck. A new station house on Champlain street had been erected in 1864.215

Another notable event of 1866, was the opening, in November, of the new Union Passenger Depot, on the lake front, at the foot of Water and Bank streets. The occasion was marked by a banquet given by the railroads owning and using this great and needed structure. These were the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati; the Cleveland & Pittsburg; the Cleveland & Toledo; and the Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula railroads. The depot was at that time regarded as one of the largest and best appointed in the country, being constructed entirely of stone and iron, and measuring 603 feet in length and 108 feet in width.216


Two great institutions of Cleveland, the Public Library, and the Western Reserve Historical Society, may both be said to have had their inception in the year now reached. Of the last-named, it also may be said that the plan of organization was first suggested in 1866, by Hon. Charles C. Baldwin, who was then vice-president of the Cleveland Library Association. On the evening of April 11, 1867, a meeting was held in the rooms of the above-named association, at which were present Charles Whittlesey, Joseph Perkins, John Barr, H. A. Smith, Charles C. Baldwin and Alfred T. Goodman. The records of that gathering say: "The object of the meeting thus assembled was to take steps toward the formation of a historical society in the City of Cleveland. The meeting was not organized in a formal way, but Colonel Whittlesey acted as chairman. A discussion was held as to the name the association should take, the following being finally adopted, viz.: The Reserve Historical Department of the Cleveland Library Association."

On due authorization from the Cleveland Library Association, a historical section was established on May 28, 1867, in accordance with the following, signed by the requisite number of members: "The undersigned members of the Cleveland Library Association hereby associate ourselves as a department of history and its kindred subjects, in accordance with the provisions of its amended constitution, and agree to proceed immediately to organize said department by adopting the proper rules and regulations, and the appointment of officers." The names signed to this agreement were as follows: M. B. Scott, A. T. Goodman, Peter Thatcher, W. N. Hudson, J. D. Cleveland, George Willey, E. R. Perkins, John H. Sargent, W. P. Fogg, George R. Tuttle, Samuel Starkweather, J. C. Buell, Henry A. Smith, C. W. Sackrider, J. H. A. Bone, Joseph Perkins, A. K Spencer, H B. Tuttle, C. C. Baldwin, T. R. Chase, Charles Whittlesey.

Te following officers were chosen, at a meeting held


some days later: President, Charles Whittlesey217; Vice-President, M. B. Scott; Secretary, J. C. Buell; Treasurer, A. K. Spencer; ex officio Curators for one year, Peter Thatcher, A. K. Spencer, Amos Townsend; Curators for one year, J. C. Buell, H. A. Smith; Curators for two years, C. C. Baldwin, M. B. Scott; Curators for three years, Joseph Perkins, Charles Whittlesey. The following was then adopted: "This department shall be known as the Western Reserve Historical Society, the principal object of which shall be to discover, procure and preserve whatever relates to the history, biography, genealogy, antiquities and statistics connected with the City of Cleveland and the Western Reserve, and generally what relate s to the history of Ohio and the Great West."

photograph of Western Reserve Historical Society Building

Western Reserve Historical Society Building

In 1868, Mr. Buell tendered his resignation as secretary, and Mr. Baldwin was elected. Rooms were engaged in the Savings Bank Building, on the Public Square, and


the work described in the above resolution was earnestly and vigorously entered upon. The society long since took its place as one of the great historical organizations of the country. Its stated publications are ranked among those of the highest value. It now occupies, and owns, the entire building in which it was once a tenant, and its possessions, in its line of relics and historical material, are valuable beyond price. It has been enriched, again and again, by the donations of generals friends, and under the direction of such men as Charles Whittlesey, Charles C. Baldwin and Alfred T. Goodman, has grown to be an authority and a power in the domains of original historic research.218

The Cleveland Public Library, which had its real origin near the same time as this great sister organization, was established by the Board of Education, under the provisions of a legislative statute passed in March, 1867, authorizing the levy of a tax of one-tenth of a mill, for library purposes. The nucleus of the library was a collection of some two thousand books belonging to the public school library, and kept in the East High School building.

A room was engaged on the third floor of the Northrop & Harrington Block, Superior street, in September, 1868, and fitted up for library purposes. It was opened to the


public on February 17, 1869, and formally dedicated in the evening of the same day. An address was delivered by E. R. Perkins, president of the Board of Education, and fitting remarks were made by Rev. Anson Smyth, H. S. Stevens, Mayor Stephen Buhrer, and W. H. Price.

The Library has been fitted up under the direction of L. M. Oviatt, who had been chosen librarian. On the day following the dedication, it was opened for the issuing of books, and from that time up to August 31st, nearly four thousand members were registered. In 1873, the Library was removed to the Clark Block, just west of its original location. In 1875, Mr. Oviatt was compelled to resign, because of failing health, and was succeeded by I. L. Beardsley, who had an extensive knowledge of books, and no small business experience. A second removal occurred, this time to the new City Hall. On the completion of the new Central High School building, it was once more removed, in April, 1879, to its present location, in the old High School building on Euclid avenue, occupying the second and third floors. In 1884, Mr. Beardsley resigned, and was succeeded by William H. Brett, who has since ably and successfully occupied that important position.

For some three years after its establishment, the Library was directly under the control of the Board of Education. In accordance with the provisions of an act, passed by the Legislature in April, 1867, the Board of Education, on October 2, 1871, elected a Board of Library Managers, which continued in control of the library until July, 1863, when four of its members resigned. The Board of Education did not fill the vacancies, but re-assumed direct control.

On April 8, 1878, an act was passed by the General Assembly, authorizing the Board of Education to elect a Library Committee, of not less than three nor more than seven members, not of their own number, who should serve for two years, and in whose hands should be placed the control of the library, with the exception of fixing


the salaries. On April 18, 1883, an act was passed changing the designation from School to Public Library, and by other measure, near the same time, the entire control was placed in the hands of the committee. The name committee was also changed to Public Library Board, and by another measure, passed April 28, 1886, the number of members was fixed at seven, each of whom was to serve three years, and all of whom were elected by the Board of Education. The first president of the Library Board was Sherlock J. Andrews, while his successors to date have been Rev. John W. Brown, General M. D. Leggett, John G. White, Dr. H. C. Brainerd, Henry W. S. Wood, and John C. Hutchins.219

Brief mention may be made of a number of other organizations, of an educational or benevolent order, that found their origin in these prolific years of expansion and growth. The Cleveland Bethel Union was incorporated in 1867, for the support of mission work, and for the maintenance of a boarding home for seamen and others in need. In 1868, a building at the corner of Superior and Spring streets was purchased, and the work has since been carried on therein, with results of a most gratifying character. In 1873, the relief work which had at first been extended only to the lower wards, was made to embrace the whole city. As an outgrowth of this work the Society for Organizing Charity was created, in 1882, for the purpose of carrying on such investigations as would prevent imposition , and decrease pauperism. In 1886, this society and the Bethel united in one organization, under the name of the Bethel Associated Charities, the


work being continued along the lines so successfully followed before.

In 1867, a bankruptcy court was instituted in Cleveland, under the authority of the third United States bankruptcy law, and Myron R. Keith was appointed registrar for the Northern District of Ohio, which office he held until the repeal of the law, in 1878. The Women’s Christian Association was organized in 1868, in response to a call from H. T. Miller, who believed that the women of Cleveland could be organized for combined Christian work, along the lines followed by the Young Men’s Christian Association. The response was general, the association came into being, and was duly incorporated. Work in the mission field commenced immediately, and a small boarding home for young working women was established. In 1869, Stillman Witt gave the association a building on Walnut street, and this work in an enlarged form was carried on therein. The Retreat for the reclamation of fallen women was founded, and by the generosity of Joseph Perkins220 and Leonard Case, a large structure, to be used as a home for such women, was erected on St. Clair street. A hospital and nursery department were added in 1883, also by donation from Mr. Perkins. Other lines of work conducted by the association are the Home for Aged Women, on Kennard street; the Educational and Industrial Union, the Young Ladies’ Branch; the Home for Incurable Women and Children, etc. Each of these branches, with-


In its own lines, has rendered great service to the needy and the destitute.

The Cleveland City Hospital commenced its work in 1869, in a small frame building on Willson street. The value of its work was soon recognized, and in 1875 a lease of the Marine Hospital and grounds was secured, from the United States Government, and the hospital was incorporated, the officers and incorporators being as follows: President, Joseph Perkins; Clerk, E. C. Rouse; Trustees, M. B. Scott, George B. Stanley, Henry Chisholm, William B. Castle, W. J. Boardman, H. C. Blossom, and G. W. Whitney. In December, 1869, the Cleveland Law Library Association was organized, and incorporated in 1870. Its purpose was the creation of a law library for the use of the county bar, and it long since ranked among the leading associations of its kind. The Kirtland Society of Natural Science also was organized in 1869, under the leadership of Dr. Jared P; Kirtland, in whose honor it was named. In 1870, it became a department of the Cleveland Library Association.

An effort had been made to secure for Cleveland, from the State Board of Agriculture, the Ohio State Fair of 1870-71 but the request was met by a refusal. This decision, no doubt, had much to do with Cleveland’s determination to have a permanent fair of her own. The question was agitated, and at a meeting of citizens, it was determined to form the Northern Ohio Fair Association, which was duly incorporated, on February 26, 1870, by the following gentlemen: Amasa Stone, J. H. Wade, J. P. Robison, Worthy S. Streator, S. D. Harris, Azariah Everett, Amos Townsend, William Bingham, Henry Nottingham, David A. Dangler, William Collins, Oscar A. Childs, Lester L. Hickox, Oliver H. Payne, Alton Pope and Waldo A. Fisher. The capital stock was fixed at $300,000. The purpose of the association was declared, in its charter, to be the promotion of agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts, in the northern section of Ohio.


Grounds containing eighty-seven acres were purchased near the lake shore, to the east of the city, and fair buildings were erected. The first fair was opened on October 4, 1870, and continued for three days. These fairs were continued, from year to year, until finally the enterprise was would up, in the winter of 88-0-81, because the financial results were not such as to justify its further continuance.

As an outgrowth of these gatherings, there grew the Cleveland Horticultural Society, the Northern Ohio Poultry Association, and the Cleveland Club. The organization last-names was composed of a portion of the Northern Ohio Fair Association directory, and was formed in 1871, for the purpose of annually holding trotting and racing meetings at the fair grounds

At the head of the social organizations of Cleveland stands the Union Club, which was organized at a meeting of well-known citizens, on September 15, 1872. It was incorporated, as the charter declared, for "physical training and education.": The first permanent officers were: President, William Bingham; First Vice-President, Henry B. Payne; Second Vice-President, W. J. Boardman; Secretary, C. P. Leland; Corresponding Secretary, Waldemar Otis; Treasurer, George E. Armstrong. The club purchased a handsome and commodious building on Euclid avenue, near Erie street, which it has since occupied. It is one of the most important social organizations of the West, and its membership and measures has fully sustained the high mark set in the beginning.

The Cleveland Bar Association came into being in March, 1873. Its purpose was declared to be the maintenance of "the honor and dignity of the profession of the law, to cultivate social intercourse and acquaintance among the members of the bar, to increase our usefulness in aiding the administration of justice, and in promoting legal and judicial reform." The association has clearly lived up to this high standard. The first officers were: President, S. J. Andrews; Vice-Presidents, James Mason,


John W. Heisley and John C. Grannis; Recording Secretary, Virgil P. Kline; Corresponding Secretary, L. R. Critchfield; Treasurer, G. M. Barber.

The Cuyahoga County Medical Society was formed in 1873, by the amalgamation of two societies, known as the Cleveland Academy of Medicine, and the Pathological Society. Its object, like that of its predecessors, was to increase the knowledge of its members, to bring them into more intimate social relations with each other, and to promote the improvement of the medical art.

Returning again to 1868, and the general record, two events of marine importance present themselves. In the launch of the little steamer "J. K. White," in this year, the people of Cleveland saw the first iron ship built within their borders, suggestive of much that was to follow. The second event was the tragic loss of the steamer "Morning Star," the companion of the "R. N. Rice," on the Cleveland and Detroit line. She left Cleveland on the night of June 20th, and when off Black River, some thirty miles out, collided in the dark and storm with the bark "Cortland." She began to sink immediately. Some of the passengers and crew saved themselves by clinging to floating pieces of wreckage, and were picked up by the "Rice," which came along two hours later. Captain Viger, and thirteen others, floated off on a portion of the upper cabin and were saved, but over a score of lives were lost. The sad news was received with wild excitement and grave apprehensions in Cleveland, as a number of her citizens were among the passengers on the ill-fated boat.

Work upon the new and needed water works tunnel was commenced in 1869. Complaint had been heard, from time to time, ever since the construction of the water works, of the quality of the water, because of shore washings, sewage, and the river outflow, and the authorities of the department decided to draw the supply from a point farther out in the lake. Surveys for a new tunnel were made in 1867, and in 1869 work was commenced by sinking a shaft on the shore, near the pumping station,


to the depth of 67 ½ feet below the surface of the lake, and a tunnel five feet in diameter commenced from its bottom outward. In the meantime, a crib, having a diameter of 87 ½ feet, was built, and on August 5, 1870, towed to a point 6,600 feet from the shore, and sunk in thirty-six feet of water. It was then loaded down with thousands of tons of stone. A lake shaft was then sunk beneath the center of the crib, to a depth of ninety feet below the surface of the water, and a tunnel started shoreward to meet the one coming from the other direction. Many difficulties in the way of quicksands, etc., were encountered, but on March 2, 1874, the work was completed, and water let in on the following day. The total cost was $320,351.72. The crib was fitted up as a lighthouse and a house for its keeper. The quality of the city water was very greatly improved.

drawing of Mayor C. A. Otis

Mayor C. A. Otis

The rapid growth of Cleveland, however, before long, demonstrated that new extensions and improvements of the water works were a matter of necessity. A second tunnel, connecting the crib with the shore, was successfully commenced, and completed in 1890, giving two direct connections between the intake at the crib and the pumping station, the old one being five feet in diameter, and the new one seven feet.

Still another step, in the direction of an improved service, was taken in the building of the new Fairmount reservoir, which was completed in 1885. The object sought was to obtain greater storage capacity, and better pressure for the larger part of the city. The old Kentucky street reservoir had a capacity of six million gallons, and maintained a head of 158 feet above the lake, but this head was decreased somewhat in overcoming the friction in the


supply pipes, leading from the reservoir to the different parts of the city. The greatest length of the Fairmount reservoir is about 1,500 feet, and the greatest width 700 feet. It is divided into two basins, by an embankment, one having a capacity of 47 gallons, and the other of 33 million gallons.

The site of this reservoir , on Fairmount street, in the extreme eastern portion of the city, was chosen as being the most suitable of all considered; far from the city dirt and smoke, having the needed materials near at hand, and lying on a railroad line. When the works were originally built, all the water for the city was pumped directly into the Kentucky street reservoir, and from thence distributed to the consumer. As the demand increased, and additional pumps and mains became necessary, the water supply system was changed, the new pumps pumping directly into the mains, while the old ones still supplied the reservoir. All the mains connected at different points, and the pressure was regulated by the head of the water up on Kentucky street. When the new reservoir was being built, and a high service system established, to take water from the reservoir to supply the higher part of the city (pumping to an elevation of 325 feet), the Cornish engines were removed from the Division street pumping station to this high service station, and direct-acting pumps put in their places. The system of water supply at present is to pump directly into the mains supplying the city, and force the surplus only into the Fairmount reservoir. The Kentucky street reservoir, therefore, became useless, and was abandoned.

Other improvements of an important character, in connection with the city’s water works system, are now under consideration, involving an extension of the present main tunnel several miles into the lake; the building of a new pumping station toward the east, and the digging of a new tunnel, a great intercepting sewer, and a thorough and scientific flushing of the Cuyahoga River.

The laying of the foundations of a most beneficent or-


ganization must be noted mong the events of 1873. On March 18th of that year, O. J. Hodge offered a resolution in the City Council, inviting all persons interested in the formation of a humane society to meet in the council chamber on the following Friday evening. This was adopted, and on the evening named there assembled about a dozen gentlemen. Mr. Hodge called the meeting to order, and explained the purposes for which it had been called, and then asked Earl Bill to occupy the chair. A committee on permanent organization as then appointed, consisting of O. J. Hodge, J. W. Fitch, and H. F. Brayton. The following names were subsequently added to the list: W. J. McKinnie, W. P. Fogg, C. B. Pettingill, H. C. Brockway, and Dr. E. Sterling. On the evening of March 27th, a constitution was reported, and on April 4th, the following officers of this newly formed Cleveland Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals were duly elected: President, General J. W. Fitch; Vice-Presidents, James M. Hoyt, William Bingham, O. J. Hodge, John Tod, Earl Bill; Secretary, H. F. Brayton.

The work of this great society has been continuous, and of incalculable benefit to two defenseless classes—dumb brutes and helpless children. Some ten or a dozen years ago, its scope was widened, so that helpless mothers and children could be brought under its protective influences. The name was then changed to the Humane Society. The good work of this organization still goes on.221 At the


twenty-third annual meeting, held on the evening of April 1, 1896, it was shown that 638 complaints in behalf of children had been reported during the year, and that in most cases relief had been secured; while the cases of six thousand and more in the animal department, had been attended to. The receipts were $4,670.98, and the disbursements about the same.