NOTES


1 "History of Man in Ohio: A Panorama." An address delivered at Norwalk, Ohio, before the Firelands Historical Society, on the 25th of June, 1890, by Hon. C. C. Baldwin. Western Reserve Historical Society’s Tract No. 80, p. 259.

2 The great ice sheet, that covered all this section, made, at the point where Cincinnati now stands, a dam five or six hundred feet high, making a lake which its discoverer, Prof. G. F. Wright, of Oberlin, Ohio, called "Lake Ohio."

3 "Standing beside some of their remarkable earthworks, a glamour of admiration leads us to picture, in imagination, a departed race, learned in all the highest arts of civilization. But under the careful study of the remains rhe picture vanishes, and leaves in its place that of a patient, plodding people, with poor appliances, struggling towards civilization while still on the confines of barbarism. . . . . If it is asked of what race were these Mound Builders, it now can only be said they were one of the native American races, closely allied to the hunting Indians, and probably a branch of the same race,"—"Archaeology of Ohio," by Professor M. C. Read, of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Western Reserve Historical Society’s Collections, Vol.. III., Tract No. 73, p. III.

4 The following, from Day’s "Historical Collections of Pennsylvania," p. 310, will throw some light upon the meaning of this name "The Eries, or Irri-ronon, a powerful and war-like race inhabiting the south side of the beautiful lake which still bears their name—almost the only memento that such a nation ever existed—a name signifying cats, which they had adopted as characteristic of their tribe."

5 "The River Ohio, otherwise called the Beautiful River, and its tributaries belong indisputably to France, by virtue of its discovery, by the Sieur de la Salle, and of the trading posts the French have had there since."—Instructions to M. Duquesne, Paris, 1752; see Colonial Documents of New York, Vol. X., p. 243. "It is only since the last war that the English have set up claims to the territory on the Beautiful River, the possession whereof has never been disputed to the French, who have always resorted to that river ever since it was discovered by Sieur de la Salle."—Instructions to Vaudreuil, Versailles, April, 1755; see Colonial Documents, Vol. X., p. 293. Two local historians of high repute incline quite strongly to the theory of this discovery. Says Col. Charles Whittlesey "No one has set up against him a rival claim to the discovery of the Ohio. His heirs, his admirers, and his countrymen should cherish the memory of that discovery as the most wonderful of his exploits." Western Reserve Historical Society’s Tract No. 38, p. 12. Charles C. Baldwin adds: "La Salle entered the Ohio near or at one of it sources, I believe at Lake Chautauqua, six or seven leagues below Lake Erie, and followed it to Louisville." Western Reserve Historical Society’s Tract No. 63, p. 328.

6 "Many historians infer that LaSalle passed through northern Ohio from the Illinois River in the winter of 1682-83. That he made a journey by land from Crevecoeur to Quebec in that winter, cannot be doubted, but there is no proof on which side of Lake Erie he traveled. It is far more probable that he avoided the hostile Iroquois, and bearing northward crossed the Detroit River, where the Indians were friendly to the French." "Early History of Cleveland," by Col. Charles Whittlesey, p. 51.

7 A tough of romance comes in here. Upon his return, this gallant governor "established the Transmontane Order, or Knights of the Golden Horse Shoe. On the sandy plains of Eastern Virginia horseshoes were rarely used; but in climbing the mountains he had found them necessary; and on creating his companions knights of this new order, he gave to each a golden horseshoe inscribed with the motto, ‘Sic jurat transcendere montes.’" Western Reserve Historical Society, Tract No. 20, p. 5.

8 "The occupation of the Ohio, from the French war to the Revolution, was as follows: The general western limits of the Iroquois proper was a line running through the counties of Belmont Harrison, Tuscarawas, Stark, Summit, and Cuyahoga. The Delawares occupied the valley of the Muskingum, their northern line running through Richland, Ashland, and Wayne; the Shawnees the valley of the Scioto, the northern line being a line lower than the Delawares; the last two tribes occupying as tenants of the Iroquois. It will thus be seen that the Iroquois had not only admitted sovereignty, but actual legal occupancy of the greater part of Ohio."—"The Iroquois in Ohio," by C. C. Baldwin. Western Reserve Historical Society, Tract No. 490, p. 28.

9 Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 131.

10 Parkman’s "Conspiracy of Pontiac," pp. 147-148.

11 Historical Address by Samuel E. Adams, Esq., "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association of Cuyahoga County," No. 1, p. 19.

12 From the privately printed life of Major Isaac Craig. Western Reserve Historical Society, Tract No. 22, p. 4.

13These zealous people derived their name from Moravia, a province of Austria, and were originally organized under the name of Fratrum or United Brethren. They were moved with an especial desire to convert the Indians of North America.

14 "Journal of a Tour into the Territory Northwest of the Alleghany Mountains, made in the Spring of the year 1803," by Thaddeus Mason Harris, A. M., member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, 1805, p. 113.

15 Not long after the close of the Revolution, the great Western country was divided into three territories: The Territory of the Mississippi; the Territory south of the Ohio; the Territory northwest of the Ohio. It has been well said that "it would be difficult to find any country so covered with conflicting claims of title as the Territory of the Northwest." Western Reserve Historical Society, Tract No. 20, p. 8.

16 In Tract No. 32 of the Western Reserve Historical Society, Col. Whittlesey discusses at considerable length the "Origin of Titles" to the Western Reserve, giving a full list of grants and conveyances affecting the same. A very valuable document bearing upon this subject may be found in the American State Papers, Public Lands, Vol. XVI., p. 94, in the form of a report from John Marshall, afterwards Chief Justice of the United States, to the House of Representatives, on March 21st, 1800, on the subject of title to the Reserve. It was made in view of the action then pending in Congress, for the settlement of the differences between Connecticut and the United States, concerning the ownership of these lands.

17 At the very end of 1798, Uriah Tracy, a Senator from Connecticut, introduced a measure in Congress that, after reintroduction and amendment, because a law in April, 1800. This authorized the President to transfer to Connecticut the legal title to the Reserve—thus confirming the title to all who had purchased from that State—on condition that the State would relinquish all claim to political jurisdiction over the same section of territory in favor of the United States. This agreement was carried out, and New Connecticut eventually became a portion of Ohio. (For above act, see Annals of Congress for 1800, p. 1495.

18 "With the exception of a few hundred acres previously sold, in the neighborhood of the Salt Spring Tract, on the Mahoning, all titles to lands on the Reserve east of the Fire Lands rest on this quitclaim deed of Connecticut to the three trustees, who were all living as late as 1836, and joined in making deeds to lands on the Reserve." Western Reserve Historical Society, Tract No. 20, p. 9.

19 In early days the name was variously spelled Cleffland, Clifland, Cleiveland, Cleaveland, and Cleveland. It is said that the family originally occupied an estate that was marked by fissures in the rocky soil, known to the Saxons as "clefts," or "cleves." This caused the rural neighborhood to speak of the occupants of the estate as the "Clefflands," which title the family accepted.

20 "Gen. Moses Cleaveland," by Harvey Rice, in "Sketches of Western Life," Boston, 1888, p. 12.

21 This commission declares that as the United States of America, in Congress assembled, repose "especial trust and confidence" in his "patriotism, conduct and fidelity," do constitute and appoint him "to be a captain in the companies of Sappers and Miners in the Army of the United States, to take rank as such from the second day of August, 1779." He is "carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a captain, by doing and performing all manner of things thereunto belonging." The commission is signed by "His Excellency Samuel Huntington, Esq., President of the Congress of the United States of America." Under date of June 7th, 1781, we find this endorsement: "Captain Cleaveland is hereby, at his own request, discharged from the service of the United States."

22 In an old cemetery in Canterbury may be seen a moss-covered stone which bears this inscription:

Moses Cleaveland, Esq.
Died November 16, 1806.
Aged Fifty-two.

23 Rice’s "Sketches of Western Life," p. 24.

24 Through the patriotic effort of George F. Marshall, of Cleveland, some letters from the pen of General Cleaveland while upon this expedition have recently been made available for historic use. There are four in all; these were found by Mr. Marshall in the possession of Walter H. Phelps, a great grandson of Oliver Phelps, of Canandaigua, N. Y., who permitted copies to be taken. They appear in full in the "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association." Vol. III., No. 1, p. 68.

25 Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 188. Col. Whittlesey adds: "Elijah Gun, and Anna, his wife, came with the surveyors and took charge of Stow’s Castle at Conneaut. Job P. Stiles, and Tabitha Cumi, his wife, were left in charge of the company’s stores at Cleveland. There were thirteen horses and some cattle, which completed the party of 1796.

26 The above patriotic outburst requires a word of explanation. Oswego was still in the hands of the British, and when Mr. Stow asked permission to pass the fort with his boats, he was refused by the officer in charge. In face of this refusal he slipped by on a dark night and his boats passed safely into Lake Ontario. The delay because of these negotiations caused him to be caught in a storm with the loss above recorded. The fort at Oswego and that at Niagara were both at that time under contract of delivery to the United States, in accordance with the provisions of Jay’s treaty.

27 Extract from the journal of General Cleaveland: "On this creek (Conneaught), in New Connecticut land, July 4th, 1796, under General Moses Cleaveland, the surveyors, and men sent by the Connecticut Land Company to survey and settle the Connecticut Reserve, and were the first English people who took possession of it. The day, memorable as the birthday of American Independence, and freedom from British tyranny, and commemorated by all good free-born sons of America, and memorable as the day on which the settlement of this new country was commenced, and in time may raise her head amongst the most enlightened and improved States. And after may difficulties, perplexities, and hardships were surmounted, and we were on the good and promised land, felt that a just tribute of respect to the day ought to be paid. There were in all, including men, women and children, fifty in number."—Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 181.

28 This celebration has usually been treated as an elaborate, all-day affair, but the letter written by General Cleaveland on July 5th, the day following, to Oliver Phelps and found among the Phelps letters already quoted, would seem opposed to that view. He says: "We sailed from Buffalo Creek a week yesterday, and having head winds and very heavily loaded, with much perseverance was able to reach this place (Conneaut Creek) yesterday at 6 p. ." This would still permit the celebration to occur in daylight, at that season of the year.

29 Judge John Barr, in the "National Magazine" for December, 1845, says: "The sons of revolutionary sires, some of them sharers of themselves in the great baptism of the republic, they made the anniversary of their country’s freedom a day of ceremonial and rejoicing. . . . Mustering their numbers, they sat them down on the eastward shore of the stream, now known as Conneaut, and, dipping from, the lake the liquor in which they pledged their country—their goblets some tin cups of no rare workmanship;, yet every way answerable—with the ordnance accompaniment of two or three fowling pieces discharging the required salute—the first settlers of the Reserve spent their landing–day as became the sons of the Pilgrim Fathers—as the advance pioneers of a population that has since made the then wilderness of Northern Ohio to bloom as the rose."

30 The authorities do not agree upon this point. Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 213, says: "Much discussion has taken place upon the origin of the name of the Chagrin River. Thomas Hutchins in his ‘Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, etc.,’ in 1787, notices a stream by the name of Shaguin which is said to mean in some Indian language, the ‘clear water.’ On Hutchins’s map of 1764 no important streams are given between the ‘Cyahoga’ and Presque Isle. It is thus not easy to determine what river is meant by the Shaguin. The surveyors all speak of it as then known, as the Chagrin. Grand River is a name evidently of French origin, its Indian name being ‘Sheauga,’ from whence the term Geauga is derived, by a very natural corruption. It is highly probable that Chagrin is a title given by the French traders to this stream, from some accident or suffering such as occurred at Misery River of Lake Superior." In the "Journal of a Tour," already quoted, we find these words: "The Shaugin River, emptying into Lake Erie, is a small but remarkably clear stream, boatable about ten miles, affording good mill seats, and abounding in excellent fish." Rev. John Seward, who came to the Reserve as a missionary in 1812, writing of the Chagrin in 1831, says: "It had long been known by that name on account of the wreck and suffering of a French crew at or near its mouth." Mr. Seward was much given to historical research, was cultured, and of marked literary ability.

31 "Pioneers of the Western Reserve," by Harvey Rice, Cleveland, 1881, p. 58.

32 "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 1, p. 23.

33 In the Phelps letters, "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," Vol. III., No. 1, p. 73.

34 He probably refers to the Cuyahoga and two other rivers he had been examining—the Grand and "the one called Ashtabula, now Mary Easter."

35 That now historic park in the very center of Cleveland’s business section was laid out as the Public Square, and so should have remained to the end of time. Some word-tinker thought otherwise after the memorial to Commodore Perry had been located at the junction of Superior and Ontario streets, and on April 16th, 186l, an ordinance was passed by the City Council declaring that "such portion of the public ground of the city of Cleveland as is at present known and commonly called the Public Square be, and the same shall be known and designated as Monumental Square." (See codified ordinances, passed March 12th, 1877, in which the above action is confirmed.) Happily the Cleveland public had a better sense of the fitness of things then the Councils of 1861 and 1877, and the Public Square it yet is in popular speech, and that appellation will be used here whenever Cleveland’s first park is referred to.

36 Extract from a paper entitled, "The Original Surveys of Cleveland," by Samuel J. Baker, in "Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies," New York, August, 1884, p. 217: "There is in the office of the city civil engineer on the first page of a volume entitled, ‘Maps and Profiles, Vol. I.,’ a map entitled, ‘A Plan of the City of Cleaveland,’ There is in the lower right-hand corner a rather quaint picture, representing two Indians, one with a gun, standing on a plain. To the left is a tent, on which is painted the above title, and to its left a tree. In the background are some hille." This map is accompanied by a statement made by I. N. Pillsbury, city civil engineer, that it is an accurate transcript made by him in 1842, from the original map and minutes of the survey of Cleveland, made in 1796 by Seth Pease. In this copy the name of 5he city contains the extra "a."

37 "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," Vol. III., No. 3, p. 367.

38 From a speech delivered by Hon. Rufus P. Spalding before the Early Settlers’ Association, in 1880: "’The town was called by my name,’ said the General, and so it was, C-l-e-a-v-e-l-a-n-d; and that was the way in which the name was spelled, written, and printed, until an act of piracy was committed on the word by the publisher of a newspaper, something over forty years ago, who, in procuring a new head-piece for his paper, found it convenient to increase the capacity of his iron frame by reducing the number of letters in the name of the city;: Hence the ‘Cleveland Advertiser,’ and not Moses Cleaveland, settled the orthography of the Forest City’s name for all time to come. Generally this story is told in connection with the ‘Herald’ rather than the ‘Advertiser.’"

38a "Some Early History," by D. W. Manchester, "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," Vol. III, No. 3, p. 366.

39 "The Corporate Birth and Growth of Cleveland," by Hon. Seneca O. Griswold. "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 5, p. 37.

40 "History of Cuyahoga County," compiled by Crisfield Johnson, 1879, p. 225.

41 "A contract made at Cleaveland, Sept. 30th, 1796, between Moses Cleaveland, agent of the Connecticut Land Company, and the employees of the company, in reference to the sale and settlement of the township of Euclid, No. 8, in the eleventh range." From memoranda or Orrin Harmon, Esq. Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 230.

42 The statement is usually to the effect that Captain Paine made his home in the Stiles cabin. George E. Paine, of Painesville, says that he "never lived in Cleveland," that he spent some part of the winter with Stiles, but most of it with the Indian chief "Old Seneca," on the banks of Grand River, where Painesville is now situated. "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 7, p. 24.

43 The Stiles family left Cleveland in 1800, and the husband lived until 1850, when he died in Leicester, Vermont.

44 Extract from the minutes of the Connecticut Land Company: "Whereas, The Directors have given to Tabitha Cumi Stiles, wife of Job P. Stiles, one city lot, one ten-acre lot, and one one-hundred-acre lot; to Anna Gun, wife of Elijah Gun, one one-hundred-acre lot; to James Kingsbury and wife, one one-hundred-acre lot; to Nathaniel Doan, one city lot, he being obliged to reside thereon as a blacksmith, and all in the city and town of Cleaveland. Voted, that these grants be approved."

45 Statement made by Amzi Atwater, in 1850.

46 Statement of Alonzo Carter (son of Lorenzo Carter) made in 1858: "Persons were buried in the old burying ground in 1797. A Mr. Eldridge was drowned at Grand River, and his body was brought here. We got some boards and made strong box for a coffin. We put him in, and strung it on a pole with cords, to carry him up to the burying ground. Built a fence around the grave."

47 "Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 265.

48 Colonel Whittlesey, in that treasure-house from which we have so frequently drawn ("Early History of Cleveland," p. 266), says: "The old settlers think it was erected by the French, but it was more probably done by the English, who were here soon after the peace of 1763. It was a better building than the French were in the habit of putting up in such remote places. It had been a comfortable and capacious log storehouse." New light is thrown upon the question by researches which have been carried on since the days of Colonel Whittlesey. In a recently printed monograph from the pen of C. M. Burton Detroit, 1895, entitled "A Chapter in the History of Cleveland," the details are given of an attempt to secure by purchase from the Indians of "a large part of the land covered by the present city of Cleveland," on the part of Alexander Henry, John Askin, and others. As part of this programme, "John Askin, Jr., was sent to take actual possession of the tract, and he built or occupied a hut on the west side of Cuyahoga River, a little back of where it emptied into the lake." There is a letter in possession of the Western Reserve Historical Society from Alexander Henry to Oliver Phelps and Henry Champion, directors of the Connecticut Land Company, dated April 1st, 1797, giving notice to the company of the claim of title by Askin and his partners, and stating that John Askin and his family "now reside on this tract at the River Cuyahoga, in order to secure possession." It will be noted, however, that Mr. Burton does not claim that this cabin was erected by Askin, using the words, "built or occupied." There stands to-day on Hanover and Vermont streets (West Side), a house that some say is the oldest in Cleveland. Tradition states that it was built by agents of the Northwestern Fur Company, at the head of the old river bed, for a trading house, many years before the arrival of Moses Cleaveland; that it was moved from place to place, and finally found a resting-place in its present location. It was originally covered with hewn timbers, but as it stands to-day (see illustration) it has a modern planed covering. It is further claimed that between 1783 and 1800 it was used as a blockhouse. It was once owned by Joel Scranton, but was purchased, near 1844, by Robert Sanderson, who moved it to its present location.

49 Statement made by John Doan, "Annals Early Settlers’ Association," No. 6, p. 51: "In General Cleaveland’s party was my uncle, Nathaniel Doan, of Middle-Haddam, Middlesex County, Conn. After spending two years, 1796 and 1797, in assisting to lay out roads and define county and township limits in the howling wilderness of that day Nathaniel Doan decided to bring his family here and locate a home in the woods. He did so in 1798, building a log cabin near the Cuyahoga River, but the next year moving further east, on the corner of Fairmount street and Euclid avenue, still known as Doan’s Corners.

50 O.P.C. in "Annals of the Early Settlers Association," No. 4, p. 47: "Rodolphus Edwards, for short called ‘Dolph,’ can be numbered among the early pioneers of Cuyahoga County, having come here way back in 1797. He settled on a large tract of land now known as Woodland Hills, but formerly called Butternut Ridge. In addition to farming, he kept a public inn or tavern, for the accommodations of the traveling public. Rain or snow, hot or cold, as regular as Saturday came around, Uncle Dolph, with his old Dobbin, old-time carry-all, and big brindle dog, seated bolt upright on the seat by the side of his master, would make his appearance in town," for the purchase of supplies for the week following.

51 As we shall meet this bus pioneer in several places hereafter, it may be well to state that in the early records his name appears in various shapes: Wheeler W. Williams, Wm. W. Williams, and William Wheeler Williams.

52 Letter of Gilman Bryant, under date of Mount Vernon, Ohio, June 1st, 1857—"Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 372.

52a Orrin Harmon says that David Abbott built the first grist-mill on the Reserve, in the fall of 1798, at Willoughby. Leonard Case stated that a mill at the forks of Indian Run, between Youngstown and Canfield, was in operation before Williams’s mill. This one at Newburgh was, therefore, the third mill on the Reserve.

53 Rice’s "Pioneers of the Western Reserve," p. 66.

54 On February 23rd, 1797, the Connecticut Land Company appointed a committee, of which Seth Pease and Moses Warren were members, to "enquire into the expediency of laying and cutting out roads on the Reserve." Their report, under date of January 30th, 1798, was to the effect that it was "expedient to lay out and cut out, a road from Pennsylvania to the city of Cleveland. . . . The Road was cut out, and the timber girdled, according to the recommendation of the committee. . . . That this was the first road that was laid out and cut out on the Western Reserve, there is no doubt. This was all done at the expense of the Connecticut Land Company."—Western Reserve Historical Society’s Tract No. 49, p. 101.

55 When did this term originate? Who first used it? Perhaps these questions may be answered by Joseph Glidden, who says: "I learned also, during my first summer in Ohio (1834) the important fact that Cleveland is six miles from Newburgh. I remember taking up a little book at the house of a friend in Akron, called a ‘Gazetteer of the State of Ohio.’ I distinctly remember that under the head of Cleveland there was this item: ‘A post-town six miles from Newburgh.’"—"Annals Early Settlers’ Association," No. 6, p. 45.

56 "Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 300.

57 "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 4, p. 75.

58 This date and place are given by J. A. Ackley, Carter’s half-brother, in a statement made at Parma, in 1858. Mr. Rice, in his "Sketches of Western Life," p. 29, says, he was born in Rutland, Vermont, in 1767.

59 N. B. Dare, of Cleveland, has recently found among some old papers in his possession a land contract between Lorenzo Carter and the Rev. Seth Hart, Moses Cleaveland’s successor as agent, or superintendent, of the Connecticut Land Company. The lot contracted for was described as follows:--"Lot No. 199, containing one acre and forty-four rods of land, as per the surveyor’s full notes, abutting east on Water street, west on the Cuyahoga River, and intersected by Mandrake lane." The conditions of sale were as follows:--"Said Carter having already built a tenable log house on said lot and cleared and improved part thereof, is to clear the remaining part of said lot in the course of the next spring and summer, and sow the same to wheat or cultivate it to some other purpose, and have a family residing in said house; and he, the said Carter, is to pay at the rate of $25 per acre, making for said lot the full sum of $47.50, which said Carter is to pay by the 1st of September, 1798, unto Oliver Phelps, Henry Champion, Moses Cleaveland, Samuel Mather, Esq., the board of directors for said company, or their successors in office or to their agent in the said city of Cleveland, with one year’s interest on the same at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum. Now, if the said Carter shall fulfill and perform the foregoing conditions, etc., then the said Hart, on behalf of himself, empowered as aforesaid, and in behalf of said board of directors, promises and engages to procure a good and authentic deed.
                                                                                                                                                      (Signed)              "LORENZO CARTER.                                                                                                                                                                                  "SETH HART.
        (Witnesses.)
"Theodore Shepherd,
"Amzi Atwater."
The contract was endorsed "S. Hart’s contract with Lorenzo Carter, 1797."

60 "Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland,: p. 346.

61 Rice’s "Sketches of Western Life," p. 34. This story is referred to by the writer as traditional. No reference is made to it by Mr. Ackley or Mr. Walworth, already quoted, nor in a statement made by Carter’s son, Alonzo.

62 "Immigration to Ohio, at an early day, at times met with the greatest discouragement. Caricature was employed to give vent to the derision which was felt. Judge Timothy Walker, in an address delivered before the Ohio Historical and Philosophical Society, at Cincinnati, in 1837, said he well remembered in his boyhood seeing two pictures—one representing a stout, well-dressed, ruddy man on a fat, sleek horse, westward bound, bearing a banner with the words: ‘Going to Ohio’; the other showing a pale and ghostly skeleton of a man, in shabby apparel, riding the wreck of a horse, journeying eastward, bearing the ensign: ‘Have been to Ohio.’"--Magazine of Western History, Vol. I., p. 343.

63 "Footprints of Puritanism," by Harvey Rice, Magazine of Western History, Vol. II., p. 88.

64 "The Western Puritan," by Henry C. White, Magazine of Western History, Vol. II., p. 619.

65 "Life and Character of Deceased Pioneers," by F. J. Dickman, "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. I, p. 26.

66 Address delivered by Hon. James A. Garfield before the Historical Society of Geauga County, at Burton, Ohio, on Sept. 16th, 1873, on the "Discovery and Ownership of the Northwestern Territory and Settlement of the Western Reserve" Western Reserve Historical Society, Tract No. 20, p. 11

67 Annual Address, by Hon. R. F. Paine, "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 4, p. 18.

68 Statement made by Dr. J. P. Kirtland, Aug. 29th, 1874: "Turhand Kirtland, my father, annually visited New Connecticut in the years 1798, 1799, and 1800. He, at that time, was agent of the Connecticut Land Company."—"Historical Collections of the Mahoning Valley," published by the Mahoning Valley Historical Society, Youngstown, Ohio, 1876, p. 10.

69 The name of Henry Champion is found in the list of directors of the Connecticut Land Company.

70 Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 376.

71 The first Court of General Quarter Sessions held in the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio," was opened at Marietta, in "Campus Martius," September 9, 1788. The commissions appointing the judges were read. Judges Putnam and Tupper, of the Common Pleas Court, were on the bench, and with Esquires Isaac Pearce, Thomas Lord, and Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr. (three county justices of the peace or territorial magistrates), constituted the quorum of our firs Court of Quarter Sessions, held a hundred years ago in the Northwest Territory. The first act of this court was to proceed to empanel a grand jury, which was accordingly done, and following named gentlemen constituting that body, namely: William Stacey (foreman), Nathaniel Cushing, Nathan Godale, Charles Knowles, Anselm Tupper, Jonathan Stone, Oliver Rice, Ezra Lunt, John Mathews, George Ingersoll, Jonathan Devol, Jethro Putnam, Samuel Stebbins and Jabez True. And this was the first grand jury to exercise its important functions in the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio."

72 "History of Trumbull and Mahoning Counties," Cleveland, 1881, Vol. I., p. 66.

73 These eight townships were: Cleveland, Warren, Youngstown, Hudson, Vernon, Richfield, Middlefield, and Painesville. There were embraced within Cleveland township, Chester, Russell and Bainbridge, later of Geauga County; all of the present county of Cuyahoga east of the river, and all of the Indian country from the Cuyahoga to the west line of the Reserve.

74 The "Cleveland Plain Dealer," December 15th, 1847, says: "Of the Judge it may be said with propriety, that he was the patriarch of the land—among the last of the brave pioneers on the lake shore. He possessed a noble heart—a heart that overflowed with kindness like the gush of a fountain. His generosities were never stinted in a good cause, or his charities bestowed ostentatiously to be blazoned abroad among men. He regarded all mankind as his brethren and kinsmen belonging to the same common household."

75 "Joseph Badger," by Harvey Rice, "Sketches of Western Life," p. 59.

76 A brief mention of other early missionaries is permissible here. Nathan B. Darrow lived in Vienna, Trumbull County, where he supplied a church for a portion of the time, and performed missionary labor for the remainder. Another was Jonathan Leslie, whose home was in Harpersfield. Joshua Beer made his home in Springfield, now Summit County, was of Scotch-Irish descent, and "preached very acceptably." Thomas Barr lived in Euclid, Cuyahoga County, and was "one of the most ardent and energetic men to be found." Giles H. Cowles, of Austinburg, was "a man of good sense and fine education; a fine example of a Connecticut pastor." John Seward preached in Aurora, and filled in his spare time in missionary labor. William Handford, Harvey Coe, Caleb Pitkin, Joseph Treat, Mr. Bacon and Joseph Merriam must be added to this honorable list--See paper on "Pioneer Clergymen," by Samuel Bissell, "Annals of Early Settlers’ Association," No. 4, p. 42. Mention should also be made of Rev. Thomas Robbins, whose labors are described elsewhere.

77 "Rev. Dr. Robbins on the Western Reserve," by B. A. Hinsdale, in "Magazine of Western History," Vol. X., p. 358.

78 "Diary of Thomas Robbins, D. D., 1796-1854." Edited and annotated by Increase N. Tarbox: two volumes. Boston, 1886.

79 "Sketch of the Doan Family," by John Doan, "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 6, p. 51. We sometimes find the name of this pioneer family spelled with a final "e," The author has followed the spelling almost universally used in the records.

80 The date given in Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 10, is 1802. Lorenzo Carter’s son, Alonzo, places it in 1803.

81 Col. Whittlesey in his preface to "Early History of Cleveland," says: "The materials for this work have been accumulating many years, but were far from complete, when Judge Barr turned over to me his historical collections without reservation. He has been engaged, with much assiduity, more than a quarter of a century, in reclaiming the personal history of the pioneers; a labor which I trust their descendants will appreciate. The extent of the obligations I am under to him will appear frequently in this volume."

82 It seems necessary to state that in the Barr manuscripts ("Early History of Cleveland," p. 360), we find this statement, under date of 1800: "A school-house was built this season, near Kingsbury’s , on the ridge road, and Miss Sarah Doan, daughter of Nathaniel Doan, was the teacher."

83 "Early Education in Ohio."—Magazine of Western History, Vol. III., p. 219.

84 "Incidents in the career of the Morgan Family," by Isham A. Morgan, "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 5, p. 28.

85 The author is under obligations to Whittlesey Adams, of Warren, Ohio, for this original information concerning this school. Mr. Adams is the possessor of the original contract quoted above, and also of two contracts for carrying mail, between Asael Adams and the Government, reference to which is made at a later point. Asael Adams was the father of Comfort A. Adams, Asael E. Adams, Fitch Adams and Alfred Adams, of Cleveland, and George Adams and Whittlesey Adams, of Warren.

86 It is in this year that Harris’s "Journal of a Tour" (p 120), speaks of Cleveland as "a pleasant little town, favorably situated on the borders of Lake Erie, at the mouth of Cuyahoga River."

87 "History of Cuyahoga County," compiled by Crisfield Johnson, P. 49.

88 The writer of this document, whoever he may have been, was more certain of his facts than of his orthography. We learn that "Loranzo" Carter was elected, a choice was "maid" of three judges, and that all this occurred in Cleveland, "Trumble" County.

89 Burton’s "A Chapter in the History of Cleveland," p. 21.

90 These facts are taken from the statement of Abraham Tappen, of Unionville, Ashtabula County, Ohio,--Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 403.

91 Near the middle of the present century, when Cleveland was at the semi-centennial mark, a schooner called the "Dean," built by Quayle &Martin, of Cleveland, was loaded at Chicago, and sent straight into the Atlantic by way of the lakes, the Welland Canal, and the St. Lawrence River. It reached Liverpool in safety, and was there sold. In 1858, a fleet was sent from Cleveland, loaded with staves and lumber. Six vessels returned in good shape, with cargoes of iron, salt and crockery ware.

92 "His son still possesses the last brick made, marked with the date, June 22, 1807. The house was a large, two-story frame, and is still standing in good repair, occupied by a son, James Kingsbury, then unborn, but now an aged man. It is probably the oldest building standing within the limits of the city. Part of the upper story was finished off in a large room, in which dances were held, and also Masonic communications, the Judge being a zealous member of the mystic order."—"History of Cuyahoga County," compiled by Crisfield Johnson, 1879, p. 213.

93 A list of the subsequent postmasters of Cleveland, with some interesting statistics showing the immense volume of business now handled, will be found in a later portion of this work.

94 "A Pioneer Father and Son,"--"Magazine of Western History," Vol. III., p. 662.

95 Letter from John Harmon, of Ravenna, dated June 11, 1860.—Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland,", p. 428.

96 "Lorenzo Carter," by Ashbel W. Walworth. "Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 339.

97 "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 10, p. 347.

98 Mrs. Long’s statement.—"Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 447.

99 "Old Time Characters," by O. P. C., in "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 4, p. 46.

101 "Loss of an Open Boat," by Q. F. Atkins.—"Annals of Early Settlers’ Association," No. 9, p. 255. The account furnished by Col Whittlesey differs from the above in several particulars.

102 "Pioneer Life in Cuyahoga County," by John D. Taylor.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association." No. 11, p. 435.

103 The salary above mentioned was not the only good this pioneer mail-carrier secured on his travels. At Canfield, Ohio, he gained a wife, in the person of Lucy Mygatt, whose father was a merchant and postmaster at that point. Mr. Adams established a general store in Warren, in 1814, and became one of the leading merchants of that place. In the early days of his mercantile career his goods, purchased in New York City, were carried in large wagons over the Alleghany mountains, by the way of Pittsburg, to Warren. Money was very scarce, and he sold goods to the farmers on one year’s time, and received from his customers wheat, deerskins, deer horns, scorched salts, horses, cattle, hogs, sheep and hickory-nuts, in payment for dry goods, drugs, groceries and hardware. The articles, wheat, deer-skins, etc., received by Adams were sent to Pittsburg, and sold for cash and goods. The scorched salts were sent in wagons to Ashtabula, thence to Buffalo by water, and exchanged for window-glass, and the glass brought back by the lake and by wagon to Warren, again to be traded to the farmers. A large business for those days was transacted by exchange, with but very little money in circulation.

104 "His first return to the Government shows that the amount of exports, at the expiration of the first quarter, was three thousand and thirty dollars. It consisted o three thousand dollars’ worth of coon’, bear and mink skins, and thirty dollars’ worth of bear’s oil. Major Spafford cultivated a piece of land, including Fort Meigs, built several out houses, and acquired considerable property here, previous to the war (1812). He was a man very much esteemed by the American and French inhabitants; was, indeed, an adviser and friend to all the early settlers. . . . He retained his office of collector until 1818, when he died at his residence"—Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 348.

105 In a letter to Hon. James Witherell, under date of Somerset, Pa., May 28, 1809.—"Whittlesey’s Early History of Cleveland," p. 426.

106 "Pioneer Medicine on the Reserve," by Dudley P. Allen, M. D.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. III., p. 286.

107 Col. Whittlesey ("Early History of Cleveland," p. 368) has preserved a copy of the bill presented by one of these commissioners, addressed to Abraham Tappan, Esq.:
                                                                                                                                                                                "Columbiana County, Ohio, October, 1809.
    "Deir Sir:--I have called on Mr. Peaies for my Pay for fixing the Seat of Justis in the county of Cuyahoga and he informt me that he did not Chit it. Sir, I should take it as a favour of you would send it with Mister Peaies at youir Nixt Cort and In so doing will oblige Your humble Sarvent—R. B… r.
    "A Leven Days Two Dollars per day, Twentytwo Dollars"

108 F. T. Wallace in "The Bench and Bar of Cleveland," Cleveland, 1889, p. 21.

109 "But for the judicial record, the ancient colonial institution would have had no ‘standing’ in court. It does not seem to have developed into the dignity of a fascinating legend, or the gravity of a classic myth. It is possible, however, that some forehanded individual, whose remote ancestors delighted in whipping-posts for witches, who had made his fortune as a sutler in the then late war, erected a ‘post’ somewhere near the log court-house in the Public Square, and donated it to the public, as elaborate and artistic drinking fountains are erected and donated in modern times by benevolent millionaires, whom the public thanks and blesses, but never partakes of the beverage."—F. T. Wallace in "The Bench and Bar of Cleveland," p. 24.

110 "Names of Early Settlers Whom I Knew," by Y. L. Morgan.—"Annals of Early Settlers’ Association," No. 3, p. 67.

111 "What I Recollect," by I. A. Morgan.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association ," No. 2, p. 59; No. 7, p. 14; No. 11, p. 408.

112 "The news (of Hull’s surrender) reached General Wadsworth, at Canfield, on the 22nd of August, who, without authority from Governor Meigs or the general Government, issued an order on the same day for the entire division go rendezvous at this place,: The "Trump of Fame" (of Warren), in its issue off September 2nd , said: "As soon as the news of the fall of Detroit was confirmed, every man ran to arms; old and young, without distinction of politics, repaired to the post of danger. None waited for the formality of orders, but every one, whether exempt from military duty or not, put on his armor."—Western Reserve Historical Society’s Tract No. 51, p 116.

113 Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," pp. 450-451.

114 "Incidents in the Career of the Morgan Family," by Isham A. Morgan.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 5, p. 26.

115 Elijah Wadsworth was born at Hart6fford, Conn., on November 4th, 1747. H served in the Revolutionary War with honor, coming out with the title of captain. In 1802, he removed to Canfield, Ohio, where he owned considerable land. In 1804, he was made major-general of the Fourth Division Ohio Militia, embracing the northeastern part of the State. He rendered loyal service to his country in the War of 1812, and died at Canfield on December 30th, 1817. General Wadsworth built the first frame house in Canfield. At Litchfield, Conn., he built the house in which Dr. Lyman Beecher afterwards lived, and in which Henry Ward Beecher was born.

116 Simon Perkins was a prominent figure in the early history of the Reserve, and his sons have been in later years counted among the best and most useful citizens of this quarter of Ohio. He was born on September 17th, 1771, at Lisbon, Conn., of one of the best known Puritan families of New England. He was a surveyor by profession, and in 1798 came to Ohio in the interests of the Connecticut Land Company, and remained as its agent at Warren until the final winding up of its affairs in 1831. He filled many offices of trust, and gave god service as a general of the Ohio Militia in the War of 1812. He died in November, 1844. He was the father of Joseph Perkins, of Cleveland, and of Jacob and Henry b Perkins, of Warren.

117 From a letter to John Barr, secretary of the Cuyahoga County Historical Society, under date of July, 1858,--Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 442.

118 The following note concerning these vessels is from the pen of Hon. O. J. Hodge: "The following 10th of September these two vessels composed a part of the British force under Captain Robert H. Barclay, in the memorable naval battle when Oliver H. Perry gained his great victory. Both were captured in that fight. After the war, the ‘Lady Provost,’ in 1815, was sold to a Canadian merchant, and for many years did service in the carrying trade of the lakes. The ‘Queen Charlotte,’ after the war, was sunk for preservation in Misery Bay, but some years later was raised, fitted out, an sailed as a merchantman on the lakes."

119 There is some question as to this young Indian’s name. Col. Whittlesey, quoting Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, calls him simply O’Mic, and the same form is used in the court records, with the name John prefixed. Mr. Julianna Long also calls him John O’Mic. The "Hisatory of Cuyahoga Conty" says John Omic. In his "Pioneer Medicine on the Western Reserve," Dr. Dudley P. Allen declares that his name was Poccon; that he "was about twenty-one years old, and the son of old O’Mic."

120 This mercy was ill-requited. "The boy was considered as forced into participation by the others, and was suffered to escape, and lived to be the ring-leader of two others in the murder of John Wood and George Bishop, west of Carrying River, in 1816, for which they were all executed in Huron County."—Statement made by Seth Doan, in 1841—Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 436.

121 Volume A, Records of the Supreme Court of Ohio for the County of Cuyahoga, is replete with pioneer history. It includes the records of the court from April, 1812, to August, 1824.

122 "Execution of O’Mic, June 24th, 1812," by the Hon. E. Whittlesey.

123 ":Pioneer Medicine on the Western Reserve," by Dudley P. Allen, M. D.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. III., p. 286.

124 "Reminiscences," by Melinda Russell.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 4, p. 65.

125 "Incidents in the Career of the Morgan Family," by I. A. Morgan.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association,’ No. 5, p;. 28.

126 Whittlesey, in "Early History of Cleveland," and the "History of Cuyahoga County," compiled by Crisfield Johnson, both give John A. Ackley. Judge Griswold, in his "Corporate Birth and Growth of Cleveland," from which we have before quoted, gives the name as John A. Kelley. A reference to the original record proves that Ackley is correct.

127 "Diamond street" was the designation of the streets on the four sides of Public Square. Judge Griswold comments as follows: "Euclid street was then established from the Square to Huron street, the space between that point and the old middle highway being in the township. That street in the early days, and for a long time afterwards, was by no means a popular highway. Stretching along the southerly side of the ridge, it was the receptacle of all the surface waters of the region about it, and during much of the time was covered with water, and for the rest of the year was too muddy for ordinary travel"—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 5, p. 44.

128 Statement of Royal Taylor.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 9, p. 277.

129 "Personal Statement," by Captain Lewis Dibble, "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 7, p. 54.

129a R. T. Lyon, who was connected with the Merwin family, says that Mr. Merwin came to Cleveland in 1815, and built a log warehouse on the corner of Superior and Merwin streets. His family came on from Connecticut the next year.

130 "When the bank was established, a suitable person for cashier was required. Judge Kingsbury, happening to be in town one day, was asked, if he knew any one among his acquaintances who could fill the position. He said he knew of a young man, by the name of Leonard Case, who wrote a good hand, and was said to be a good accountant; and he thought he would answer. He was engaged, and was the first cashier, and Alfred Kelley the first president." Statement by Geo. B. Merwin.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 1, p. 66.

131 "State Bank of Ohio," by J. J. Janney.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. II., p. 158.

132 The donors to this fund were as follows: T. & I. Kelley, $20; Stephen S. Dudley, $5; Daniel Kelley, $10; T. & D. Mills, $5; Wm. Trimball, $5; J. Riddall, $5; Walter Bradrock, $2.50; Levi Johnson, $10; J. Heather, $5; Horace Perry, $10; John A. Ackley, $5; A. W. Walworth, $5; Geo. Wallace, $5; Jacob Wilkerson, $5; Plinney Mowrey, $3.20; D. C. Henderson, $15; David Long, $15; Samuel Williamson, $15; Alonzo Carter, $15; John Dixon, $5; N. H. Merwin, $5; James Root, $5; Joel Nason, $3; Edward McCarney, $5; Geo. Pease, $5.

133 "Early History of the Cleveland Public Schools," by Andrew Freese; published by order of the Board of Education, 1876, p. 6.

134 "Recollections," by George B. Merwin.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 5, p. 17.

135 The elder Williamson was a native of Cumberland County, Pa., and came to Cleveland in 1810, where, in connection with his brother, he carried on the business of tanning and currying, which he continued until his death, in 1834. The son Samuel was but two years of age when he came to Cleveland, and was born in Crawford County, Pa., in 1808. He was a member of the Cleveland bar, auditor of Cuyahoga County a member of the Ohio House and Senate, served in the city council, on board of education, and in other positions of public trust. He served for a number of years as president of the Cleveland Society for Savings. He died in 1884. Mr. Williamson’s statement, quoted in the text, is from an address found in the "Annals of the Early Settlers"’ Association," No. I, p. 57.

136 "How it Was," by George Watkins.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. y, p. 59.

137 "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," Vol. III., No. I, p. 35.

138 Mr. Rice became a member of the Cleveland bar; was elected to the Legislature, and appointed agent for the sale of the Western Reserve school lands; served as clerk of Cuyahoga County, and in 1851 was sent to the State Senate, where he introduced the bill which became the Ohio school law, under which the free public-schools of Ohio were organized. To school work, and to other lines connected with the prevention of crime and the reformation of criminals, Mr. Rice gave many years of earnest and successful labor. He was an author of note, and the efficient first president of the Early Settlers’ Association of Cuyahoga County. His life of usefulness ended in 1891.
      In connection with the above mention of Mr. Rice’s services in the General Assembly of Ohio, it may be mentioned, as an interesting historical fact, that Cuyahoga County in its long public record has been represented by but three Democrats in the Ohio Senate—Henry B. Payne, Harvey Rice, and, after a lapse of thirty years, A. J. Williams. The gentleman last named, in addition to his political and other pubic services, has been, and is,, one of the most earnest and active of the official workers in the Early Settlers’ Association.

139 "What I Remember," by John H. Sargent.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 6, p. 12.

140 "Cleveland When a Village," by Ara Sprague.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 2, p. 74.

141 The "Cleaveland Register," under date of November 3rd, 1818, says: "The facility with which she moves over our lakes warrants us in saying she will be of utility, not only to the proprietors, but to the public. She affords to us a safe, sure, and speedy conveyance of all our surplus products to distant markets. She works as well in a storm as any vessel on the lakes, and answers the most daring expectations of the proprietor."

142 "Autobiography and Recollections of a Pioneer Printer," by Eber D. Howe; Painesville, Ohio, 1878, p. 20.

143 "The Early Marine Interests of Cleveland," by James Harrison Kennedy.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. II., p; 452.

143a This was the first vessel registered at Washington from the district of Cuyahoga, under the United States revenue laws.

144 "The ‘Register’ had been put in operation by Andrew Logan, who brought his press and type from Beaver, Pa., which were so badly worn (nearly down to the third nick, as printers say), that the impressions were nearly illegible. Mr. Logan was a very small man, of a very dark complexion, and was, by some said to be a lineal descendant of the famous Mingo chief. The ‘Register’ was discontinued a few months after the establishment of the ‘Herald.’"—Eber D. Howe, in "Autobiography and Recollections of a Pioneer Printer."

144a Autobiography of Eber D. Howe, p. 23.

145 The names of these fifteen were: Elisha Taylor, and Ann, his wife; T. J. Hamlin, P. B. Andrews, Sophia L. Perry, Bertha Johnson, Sophia Walworth, Mabel How, Henry Baird, and Ann, his wife; Rebecca Carter, Juliana Long, Isabella Williamson, Harriet How, and Minerva Merwin.

146 The seventy-fifth anniversary of the church was celebrated with appropriate ceremonies in 1895, commencing on Sunday, October 20th. A full account of these may be found in a work entitled: "Annals of the First Presbyterian Church of Cleveland, 1820-1895. Being Sermons and Papers called out by the Celebration of her Seventy-fifth Anniversary." 1895

147 "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. I, p. 42.

148 "Life and Character of David H. Beardsley," by Hon. J. P. Bishop.--"Annals of the Early Settlers' Association," No. 2, p. 47.

149 "Governor Clinton and the Ohio Canal," by George B. Merwin.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 6, p. 38.

150 Statement made by Mr. George B. Merwin: "The completion of the Ohio Canal was celebrated by a great ball at the Mansion House, kept by James Belden. I attended with my parents and sat awhile in the lap of Gov. Allen Trimble, who had honored the occasion by his presence. It took all the men, women and children in the village who danced, to make enough for a set of contradances, or quadrilles."—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. I, p. 73.

151 The canal was completed through to the Ohio River in 1832. In two years, thereafter, the freight carried upon it amounted to half a million bushels of wheat, a hundred thousand barrels of flour, a million pounds of butter, with nearly seventy thousand pounds of cheese, besides a large amount of general merchandise.

152 This statement was made by Hon. John W. Allen, at the first annual meeting of the Early Settlers’ Association, in May, 1880. ("Annals,:" No. I, p. 61.) It seems to show that even a man of Mr. Allen’s bright mind and vigorous memory cannot be depended upon for details, after the expiration of fifty and more years. Dr. Long was a member of the board of village trustees in 1828; Mr. Allen was not. Mr. Allen was on the board in 1829, and Dr. Long was president. This fact, taken with the records of the village as found in the city clerk’s office, shows that the engine was ordered in 1829, at the cost we have above given. The returns of the election, to which Mr. Allen refers, show that he was correct upon that point—not a trustee who voted for the engine was returned the next year.

152a A specimen of Cleveland’s early architecture is found in the Lemen homestead, shown in the accompanying illustration. This was built, in 1829, by William Lemem, on the south side of Superior street, at its junction with the Public Square. It was taken down, in 1851, by Mr. Hoffman, who had leased it for a term of years, and the Hoffman Block was erected in its stead. In 1889, this latter building and site were leased to James Parmelee for the term of ninety-nine years, and in 1891-2 the Cuyahoga Building of to-day was erected. The stone pillars which were in the Lemen cottage were used in the construction of a temple in Lakeview Cemetery.

153 General Ahaz Merchant’s connection with Cleveland seems to have been deserving of a more extended mention than is found in any of the published records. He was born in Connecticut, on March 21st, 1794, and became a resident of Cleveland in 1818. He learned the art of the surveyor, and was, for a time, in the service of the State, surveying school lands in Tuscarawas County. He laid out and helped build the horse railroad, elsewhere described, that ran to East Cleveland. He was county surveyor from 1833 to 1835, and again from 1845 to 1850. He did a great deal of engineering for the city and county prior to the employment of a city engineer; was connected with the establishment of grades on Seneca, Bank, Erie, Canal, and other streets; engineer of the first improvement of the old river bed; laid out the most important allotments in the City of Ohio; while his similar work, upon the other side of the river, was very extensive. He was active in the building line, and erected the "Angier House," later known as the "Kennard House."" His title of General was gained through his official connection with the militia. He died on March 28th, 1862. His sons, Aaron and Silas Merchant, were both well known in connection with the public history of Cleveland; while one of his daughters, Mrs. R. M. N. Taylor, and her husband, were noted, for some years, as hostess and host of the well-known hotel above named—in its time one of the best in the west.

154 "Women of Cleveland and their Work," by Mrs. W. A. Ingham, p. 17.

155 "Sixty Years Ago," by Milo H. Hickox.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," Vol. III, No. I, p. 75.

156 Whittlesey’s "Early History of Cleveland," p. 475.

157 "History of Cuyahoga County," compiled by Crisfield Johnson, p. 417.

159 "Personal Statement," by Captain Lewis Dibble.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 7, p. 56.

160 "The early Fire Department of Cleveland," by George F. Marshall.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 9, p. 245.

161 Address by Harvey Rice.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 10, p. 301.

162 "An Old Letter."—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 4, p. 40.

163 This account is taken from an article written by E. Randell, of Tiffin, Ohio, to the "Cleveland Leader" some years since. He says that it is quoted from the "Casket" of 1833.

164 The ready pen of George F. Marshall has touched up this pioneer line in these words: "The Cleveland and Newburgh Railway was an accomplished fact, had its day, carried its loads of human freight and blue stone combined, yielded up its dividends and the ghost simultaneously, and were is it? . . . The kline or route was directly through Euclid street, and a single passenger-coach carried all the human freight that sought transit; one horse was quite enough for any car-load, and we prided ourselves that we had a street railroad in real good earnest, and two trips a day were quite enough for all the travel."—"A Sketch of Early Times in Cleveland," by Geo. F. Marshall.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. I, p. 100.

165 Henry B. Payne has made his mark upon the history of Cleveland in a deep and lasting manner. Born in Hamilton, New York, he was educated at Hamilton College; studied law; came to Cleveland in 1832, and after admission to the bar, entered into partnership with H. V. Willson. He early took part in the conduct of public affairs; was a member of the City Council; president of the Cleveland and Columbus Railroad Company; member of the first board of water-works commissioners; sinking-fund commissioner; city clerk; elected to the State Senate in 1851; was Democratic nominee for the United States Senator in 1851, but was beaten by Ben Wade by only one vote; was Democratic candidate for governor in 1857, but was defeated by Salmon P. Chase by but a few hundred votes; served as delegate to a number of presidential conventions. Mr. Payne was elected to Congress from the Cuyahoga district in 1874, and was a member of the famous Tilden-Hayes electoral commission. In 1880, he was a prominent candidate for the Democratic nomination for President. He rounded out a long and honorable public career by election to the United States Senate in 1884. He died on September 9th, 1896.

166 "The City of Cleveland Sixty Years ago," by James D. Cleveland, in the "Cleveland Leader," February 2nd, 1896.

167 "Magazine of Western History," Vol. II, p. 444.

168 It seems to have been the universal custom from the beginning, to call the corporation across the river, "Ohio City." Yet the fact is, that it was incorporated under the name "City of Ohio," and that name appears in all the council records, from the first page, in 1836, to that in which it is stated that the council adjourned sine die, in 1854, when Cleveland and the City of Ohio became one.

169 George Hoadly was one of the marked men of his day. He had been a tutor at Yale, and, for some time in his early years, was a writer on an eastern journal. He served as a justice of the peace, in this city, from 1831 to 1846, and, during that time, passed upon over twenty thousand cases, few of which were appealed, and in not one case was his judgment reversed. In 1846, he was elected mayor of Cleveland, and made as good a chief municipal officer as he had a justice. About forty years after his inauguration, his son, George Hoadly, was installed as Governor of Ohio.

170 The list of Cleveland’s mayors, from 1850 to the present time, is as follows: 1851, William Case; 1852, 1853, 1854, Abner C. Brownell; 1855, 1856, William B. Castle; 1856, 1857, 1858, Samuel Starkweather; 1859, 1860, George B. Senter; 1861, 1862, Edward S. Flint; 1863, 1864, Irvine U. Masters; 1865, 1866, Herman M. Chapin; 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870, Stephen Buhrer; 1871, 1872, Frederick W. Pelton; 1873, 1874, Charles A. Otis; 1875, 1876, Nathan P. Payne; 1877, 1878, William G. Rose; 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, R. R. Herrick; 1883, 1884, John H. Farley; 1885, 1886, George W. Gardner; 1887, 1888, B. D. Babcock; 1889, 1890. George W. Gardner; 1891, 1892, William G. Rose; 1893, 1894, Robert Blee; 1895, 1896, Robert E. McKisson.

171 Statement by Samuel H. Mather.—Freese’s "Early History of the Cleveland Public Schools," p. 10.

171a The "old district schoolhouse," illustrated above, still stands on Detroit street (West Side); it has been used as a dwelling since 1857. Mrs. John H. Sargent writes to the author concerning it as follows: "The schoolhouse was built the summer of 1841. Mr. Sargent kept the first school held within it in the winter of 1841-42; I kept the last school in it in the winter of 1856-57. The three school trustees were, my father, Morris Jackson; Stephen Herrick, and Henry Whitman. Mr. Sargent and I were married three weeks after my school closed—we were the Alpha and Omega of the old schoolhouse."

172 It may be of interest to name some of these first high school pupils, who, at a later date, became well known in Cleveland, or elsewhere, such as William W. Andrews, J. C. Buell, Oscar A. Childs, George W. Childs, Kennedy Clinton, George W. Gardner, John P. Jones, John M. Sterling, Jr., George W. Tibbitts, John F. Whitelaw.

173 The semi-centennial anniversary of the founding of this high school was celebrated on Wednesday, April 1st, 1896, by a gathering of former pupils, at the Central High School building, on Willson avenue. Some fifteen hundred were present. All of the living members of the class of 1855 attended. These were Mrs. Moses G. Watterson, Mrs. A. M. Van Duzer, Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Miss Lucy M. Spellman, and Mr. Albert H. Spencer.

174 When Harvey Rice was addressing the Ohio Senate in support of his bill for the creation of the common school system of Ohio, he made use of words that were fulfilled prophecy long since. Said he, "By the provisions of this bill, it is intended to make our common schools what they ought to be—the colleges of the people—‘cheap enough for the poorest, and good enough for the richest.’ With but a slight increase of taxation, schools of different grades can be established and maintained in every township of the State, and the sons and daughters of our farmers and mechanics have an opportunity of acquiring a finished education equally with the more favored of the land. . . . Allow me to express my belief that the day is not far distant when Ohio, in the noble cause of popular education and of human rights, will lead the column, and become what she is capable of becoming—a state of the first magnitude—the brightest in the galaxy of our American Union"

175 Samuel H. Mather, secretary of the board, 1854.

176 Acknowledgment of much information upon this subject is made to Hon. O. J. Hodge, whose paper, "Cleveland Military," in the "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," Vol. III, No. 4, p. 516, is a valuable historical document.

177 The title-page of this interesting and rare volume, a copy of which may be found in the library of the Western Reserve Historical Society, is here reproduced.

178 "Though the dividing line between the two cities was the center of the river, Cleveland claimed to be legally invested with the entire title to the bridge. Ohio City claimed exclusive jurisdiction over the south half of it, and insisted on its abatement, because it diverted travel from that city to Cleveland,"—Rice’s "Incidents of Pioneer Life," p. III.

179 The condition of the public mind, upon both sides of the river, can be judged somewhat from the following personal experience of D. W. Cross: "Nearly forty-five years ago the ‘Commodore Perry’ landed at your busy wharf, a young man. When conveyed from the boat to the old Franklin House, the long rising steps in front, the platform, and the clerk’s office, were crowded with boisterous and excited people. As he elbowed his way through the surging crowd toward the office to register his name as a future citizen of the only Ohio, three stalwart men; Tom Colahan, George Kirk and Andrew Lyttle, seized a wiry, darksome man, and in a twinkling stood him bolt upright on the clerk’s counter. He waved his hand, and that boisterous crown was instantly reduced to silence. Then followed one of the fiercest blood-and-thunder speeches mortal man every heard. Many of the old citizens will remember what the bold and fiery John R. St. John could so in that line, on a befitting occasion. It was the opening of the Bridge War, and the occasion was great. ‘Fellow citizens,’ said he in conclusion,’ your generous townsmen, Clark and Willey, have presented this city with that bridge on Columbus street which spans the Cuyahoga. It has been unjustly attacked by the people of Ohio City with the avowed purpose of destroying it. That bridge is a public convenience—yes, a public necessity. It must be protected! To destroy it means war! Before we will cowardly submit to this great injustice, we will give them war! War to the knife, and the knife to the hilt!’"—Recollections of Cleveland and the Cleveland Bar," by D. W. Cross.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. VI, p. 614. `

180 This war-like episode was something more than a joke at the time, but was soon seized upon by local wags and story-tellers, and made the basis of a great deal of amusement. D. W. Cross composed an epic of some length, entitled "The Battle of the Bridge" ("Magazine of Western History," Vol. VII., p. 343), the opening lines of which are here reproduced:
                                                                                On hills, like Rome, two cities might be seen,
                                                                                (Meand’ring Cuyahoga flowed between);
                                                                                Whose rival spires in rivalry arose,
                                                                                The pride of friends, the envy of their foes,
                                                                                Each rival ruler of each rival town
                                                                                On his would smile, but on the other frown.
                                                                                Each sought for greatness, in his rival’s fall,
                                                                                Regardless that the world was made for all.
                                                                                Envy and hatred waxed to frenzied height!
                                                                                Naught could appease but fierce and bloody fight.

                                                                                The culmination came! A peanut stand
                                                                                Erected by a "combination" band
                                                                                Of desperate men of capital, who swore
                                                                                No trade should be diverted from their shore.
                                                                                They claimed that Clark and Willey, reckless, sought
                                                                                To build a bridge. The right of way was bought
                                                                                Already! And they then designed to build
                                                                                Columbus street and bridge! This rumor filled
                                                                                Their souls with madness, and their eyes with tears!
                                                                                To think that peanut stand, the toil of years
                                                                                Should for the want of patronage decay
                                                                                And trade and barter turn some other way.
                                                                                They all agreed this could not be allowed,
                                                                                An boisterous bellowings agitate the crowd!

181 The census of 1840 gives the population of Cuyahoga County as 25,542, divided as follows: Cleveland, 7,037; Mayfield, 852; Orange, 1,114; Solon, 774; Euclid, 1,774; Warrensville, 1,085; Bedford, 1,021; Newburg, 1,342; Independence, 754; Brecksville, 1,124; Brooklyn, 1,409; Parma, 965; Royalton, 1,051; Rockport, 1,151; Middleburgh, 339; Strongsville, 1,151; Dover, 960; Olmstead, 659.

182 O. J. Hodge, who has kindly prepared it for this purpose on request of the author.

183 This building, which had become one of the best known of the landmarks of early Cleveland, has given place to a handsome, modern structure erected by the generosity of John L. Woods, one of Cleveland’s most successful lumber merchants. Its cost was near $175,000. The dedication services occurred on March 8th, 1887.

184 This measure was described by itself as "An Act to authorize a Loan of Credit by the State of Ohio to Railroad Companies,--also to Turnpike, Canal and Slackwater Navigation Companies," It was generally described as "The Plunder Law," after its character was understood.

185 The grand total of Ohio’s investments under this law was as follows: Railroads, $751,915; turnpikes, $1,853,365; canals, $600,000. Total, $3,205,280. The returns were very much less.

185a "The Ohio Railroad: That Famous Structure built on Stilts," by C. P. Leland. Western Reserve Historical Society’s Tract No. 81.

186 The "Cleveland Herald" of January 26th, 1836, states, with no small pride, that the engineers of the Cleveland, Warren & Pittsburg Railroad had reached Cleveland on the previous day, and adds, that "everything connected with this improvement seems to progress with am activity and spirit which promises the most favorable results." Stock was readily subscribed to a large amount, and at a meeting held on My 12th the organization of a board of directors was effected, with Mayor John W. Willey as president.

187 "In the spring of 1846 there were three or four rival projects for a road to Columbus from the Lake, but none of them were unfriendly to Cleveland. We called a meeting of all the commissioners at Mansfield, and at our request they all agreed to give us six months to enable us to carry out our project, and, if we were successful, they would rest quietly as to theirs.’ Mr. Allen relates at some length the steps then taken, and adds: "Out of these devices grew this road of great and immediate importance to Cleveland,"—"Our First Attempt at Railroad Building,." by John W. Allen;--"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 5, p. 96.

188 "A Sketch of Early Times in Cleveland," by George F. Marshall.—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. I, p. 102.

189 "The road was so far finished that trains were run over its entire length, from Columbus to Cleveland, on the 21st of February last, but the road could not be considered as fully open for regular business operations before the 1st of April. Since that time a large and profitable business has been done—larger, and more profitable, it is believed, in proportion to the amount of capital invested, than has been done on any other road in the United States for the first eight months after its being opened for use."—Extract from the report of President Alfred Kelley for 1851.

190 The details of this expedition are graphically set forth by R. F. Smith, general manager of the Cleveland & Pittsburg Railway Company, in a communication to the Board of Trade, in 1871.: "The general assembly with the governor and various other officers o f the State, having passed over the line of the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati, from Cincinnati to Cleveland, celebrating its opening to the public, were, on the twenty-second of February, 1851, invited to visit the thriving village of Hudson, before their return to the substantial realities of life at the capital. This trip was accomplished by the honorable gentlemen, not, however, without experiencing upon the rough and unballasted track of the incipient highway, the vicissitudes incidental to railroad life. Owing to some misunderstanding, the supply of edibles at Hudson was far too meagre, and the train getting off the track upon the return trip, the excursionists were detained to a late hour of the night, but eventually their honors, were landed again in the city upon the lake shore, a hungrier if not a wiser and happier set of men."

191 "In March (1851), the track was constructed to Ravenna, and in November to Hanover, a distance of seventy-five miles from Cleveland. In the exuberance of their joy the stockholders at their meeting resolved ‘that the directors be requested to give a free ticket to each stockholder and his lady to ride over the road from Cleveland to Hanover, and return at any time within thirty days, and that landholders, through whose land the road passes, shall be entitled to a free ticket for themselves and wives from twenty days of the opening of the road, and that the same privilege be extended over the other portions of the road when completed."—From the statement made by R. F. Smith, general manager of the Cleveland & Pittsburg Railroad.

192 "He died in Havana, Cuba, on January 12th, 1859, and the half-grave, half-playful, but altogether pathetic remark made to a friend previous to his death. ‘If I die you may inscribe on my tombstone, ‘Died of the Mahoning Valley Railroad,’ ‘was more of a sombre fact that a light jest or passing fancy."—Magazine of Western History," Vol. II., p. 618.

193 The act to transfer this property from the control of the State to that of the City of Cleveland was passed by the Legislature April 29th, 1872. The weighlock was removed May 21st, 1874. The matter than rested until October 31st, 1879, when a quitclaim deed was given to the city by Governor Bishop. This deed was formally accepted November 3rd, 1879, and the city leased the property on November 4th, 1879, to the Valley Railroad Company for a term of ninety-nine years, receiving in payment of the same $265,000 in first mortgage bonds of the road. November 10th, 1879, this lease was formally approved by the City Council. In a financial way, aside from the gain in business from the increased efficiency of the road, Cleveland was a loser by this transaction, as it expended $288,405.37 in making this improvement. This amount, however, included $125,000, which was paid for the surrender of leases to a portion of the property.

194 "History of Cuyahoga County," compiled by Crisfield Johnson, p. 243.

195 The subjoined figures, taken from the "Cleveland Plain Dealer," of November 12, 1895, form a fitting comment upon the above list: "By the statement made of the condition of the twelve National Banks, September 28th, 1895, the combined capital stock paid in amounted to $9,458,250; the surplus to $2,699,769; the deposits $24,391,423, and the loans $27,710,654; and on October 7th, the twenty-six State Banks and Savings Societies showed a combined paid-up capital of $5,078,960, with surplus and undivided profits $4,054,877; deposits $48,691,080, and loans $34,852,768. Taking the combined deposits of all the banking institutions, as above, the amount reaches the enormous figure of $73,082,503, which is more than one-third of the deposits of all the banks in the State of Ohio."

196 Much of the information in the above is taken from an able and extended article in the "Cleveland Voice," of January 11, 1896, entitled "Insurance in Cleveland." The history of all these companies is there given in detail.

197 "The long official life of Judge Tilden, is the most remarkable on record, either in this or any other State. He was, probably, fifty years old when he came to Cleveland. He had been a prominent lawyer in Portage County; had held official position there, and had served in Congress, as far back as when Abraham Lincoln was a member. On coming to Cuyahoga County, he became a partner with Robert F. Paine, for a few years and until his election, in the fall of 1854, to the position which to him proved substantially a life office, at least reaching far beyond that period of life when judges in many States are necessitated to retire, by constitutional limitation."—"Bench and Bar of Cleveland," p. 35. Judge Tilden passed from life in 1890. He was born in Connecticut in 1806, and first came to the Western Reserve in 1828.

198 "The New England Society of Cleveland—Its Origin and History;" by William Perry Fogg—"Cleveland Plain Dealer," November 17, 1895.

199 "It is well known that the city realized a large surplus from its stocks, after the payment of its obligations given therefor, perhaps the only case of its kind in the whole country. In addition to this fund, the city also realized a considerable amount of stock from the sale of its lands north of Bath street, on the lake shore, to those several roads, to which it had given its credit. March 28, 1862, an act was passed by the Legislature, creating a board of fund commissioners, to take charge of this fund. Nothing more need be said of the management thereof, than that form this fund over a million and seven hundred thousand dollars, has been paid to discharge the debt of the city, and over a million still remains (1884) in the hands of the commissioners. It is one of the pleasant recollections of the person who addresses you, that in his official capacity, representing this community, he inserted in his own handwriting, in the original bill as it was passed, the honored names of Henry B. Payne, Franklin T. Backus, William Case, Moses Kelley, and William Bingham, who thereby were made the commissioners of said fund"—Hon. S. O. Griswold, in "The Corporate Birth and Growth of Cleveland."—"Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 5, p. 56

201 A list of the mayors of the City of Ohio may be given here as follows: 1836, Josiah Barber; 1837, Francis A. Burrows; 1838-9, Norman C. Baldwin; 1840-1, Needham M. Standart; 1842, Francis A. Burrows; 1843, Richard Lord; 1844-5-6, D. H. Lamb; 1847, David Griffith; 1848, John Beverlin; 1849, Thomas Burnham; 1850-1-2, Benjamin Shldon; 1853, William B. Castle.

202 William Case, son of Leonard Case, Sr., was born in Cleveland on August 10, 1818. He attended an academic school kept by the Rev. Colley Foster, on Ontario street, and then the preparatory school of Franklin T. Backus. He had hoped to enter Yale, but gave that up to become his father’s business assistant. He was fond of hunting and natural history, and was the moving spirit in that little coterie of congenial friends who established the famous "Ark," down on the Public Square. He served in the City Council, and as Mayor of Cleveland gave the city intelligent and patriotic service. He labored in the interest of Cleveland’s first railroad, serving as president of the Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula Railroad Company. As is above shown, he had much to do with the creation of the city’s system of water works. In 1859, he began the erection of Case Hall, but died of consumption in 1862, before its completion. A full and appreciative sketch of the Case family, and its connections with Cleveland, may be found in the Western Reserve Historical Society’s Tract No. 79, from the able pen of Hon. James D. Cleveland..

203 F. T. Wallace, in "Bench and Bar of Cleveland," p. 176. At a date somewhat later than that named above, banquets were annually held by the Cleveland Bar, the first occurring on March 10th, 1880, presided over by Hon. Henry B. Payne. Speeches were made by Martin Welker, R. F. Paine, D. R. Tilden, J. M. Jones, John W. Heisley, John Hutchins and F. J. Dickman. Similar gatherings were also held in 1881, 1882, and 1883.

204 Statement in "History of the Manufacture of Iron in all Ages," by James M. Swank; p. 240. Published in Philadelphia in 1884.

205 "The Coal and Iron Industry of Cleveland," by James F. Rhodes.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol.. II, p. 343.

206 The complete history of these cases has been published in a volume long out of print, entitled: "History of the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue,: compiled by Jacob R. Shipherd, with an introduction by Henry E. Peck and Ralph Plumb. Boston, 1859. Information of value may also be found in "The Underground Railroad," by James H. Fairchild, ex-president of Oberlin College.—Western Reserve Historical Society’s Collections, Vol. IV., Tract No. 87, p. 112.

207 A full account of this event may be found in a publication ordered by the City Council, entitled: "Inauguration of the Perry Statue, at Cleveland, on the 10th of September, 1860; including the Addresses, and other Proceedings." Cleveland, 1861.

208 Five thousand dollars were raised by public subscription, and the sum of three thousand and eight dollars appropriated by the City Council, from the city treasury, to make up the deficiency.

209 The law-abiding spirit in which the anti-slavery people of Cleveland accepted the decision of the law, is well shown in the remarks made by Judge R. P. Spalding, when he saw that the surrender of the girl was inevitable. Said he: "I am constrained to say that, according to the law of slavery, the colored girl Lucy does owe service to William S. Goshorn, of Virginia. Nothing now remains that may impede the performance of your painful duty, sir, unless I may be permitted to trespass a little further upon your indulgence, and say to this assemblage, we are this day offering to the majesty of constitutional law, a homage that takes with it a virtual surrender of the finest feeling of our nature; the vanquishing of many of our strictest resolutions; the mortification of a free man’s pride, and, I almost said, the contraventions of a Christian’s duty to his God. While we do this, in the City of Cleveland, in the Connecticut Western Reserve, and permit this poor piece of humanity to be taken, peaceably, through our streets, and upon our railways, back to the land of bondage, will not the frantic South stay its parricidal hand? Will not our compromising Legislature cry: Hold, enough!"

210 That "roll of honor" has been at last recorded in an enduring form. Those who would read it in its entirely, are referred to the following work for detail: "History of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument," by William J. Gleason: published by the Monument Commission, Cleveland, 1894. In this work, Major Gleason has most patriotically and ably done for the Cuyahoga soldier and sailor that which has never been done before; that no one need attempt again. Most of the regiments represented have published histories of their own, from time to time, which can be found on the shelves of the Western Reserve Historical Society.

211 The original board of directors of this now mighty corporation, with a capital stock of $97,500,000, was composed of John D. Rockefeller, Henry M. Flagler, Samuel Andrews, Stephen V. Harkness, and William Rockefeller. Its capital was fixed at $1,000,000, in shares of one hundred dollars each. Some idea of the extent to which the oil interests had grown, even as early as 1884, may be gained from a glance at the Board of Trade report for that year, where these figures may be found. The capital invested in the manufacture of oil in Cleveland was $27,395,746. There were 86 establishments, employing 9,869 hands, whose aggregate wages amounted to $4,381,572. The establishments used raw material, to the value of $34,999,101. The cost of the crude petroleum, which amounted to 731,533,127 gallons, was $16,340,581; while $11,618,307 was paid out for barrels, $2,792,997 for tin cans, $906,911 for cases, and $645,412 for bungs, paint, glue, etc. The balance of the cost on account of raw material, was for fuel and chemicals. The aggregate value of the products obtained from crude petroleum was $43,705,218; of which sum illuminating oils furnished $36,839,613. The remaining $6,865,605 was divided among other products. "It is estimated," says the report, "that 3,179,263 barrels of crude oil were refined here during the past year, 75 per cent. of which was made into refined oil, 15 per cent. into gasoline, naphtha and kindred products, and 7 per cent. into lubricating oil, paraffine, etc. The other three per cent. was the loss in the refining process."

212 For some of the facts ion the above, the writer is under obligation to the "Fire Service of Cleveland," published in 1889, by the Firemen’s Relief Association. The detailed history of most of the fires of Cleveland, with losses, etc., is there furnished, with much other valuable information, for which room can hardly be found in this work. As work of reference, it is of no small value.

213 "Annual Statement of the Trade, Commerce, and Manufactures of the City of Cleveland, for the year 1865." Reported to the Board of Trade, by J. D. Pickands. Cleveland, 1866.

214 The following comment from the "Herald," in September, 1865, will show how the situation was viewed from the home standpoint: "Cleveland now stands confessedly at the head of all places on the chain of lakes, as a shipbuilding port. Her proximity to the forest of Michigan and Canada affords opportunity for the selection of the choicest timber, while the superior material and construction of the iron manufacturers of the city give an advantage. Cleveland has the monopoly of propeller building, its steam tugs are the finest on the lakes, whilst Cleveland-built sailing vessels not only outnumber all other vessels on the chain of lakes, but are found on the Atlantic Coast, in English waters, up the Mediterranean, and in the Baltic."

215 Like the fire department, the police service of Cleveland has kept pace with the general growth. On January 1st, 1895, it was shown in the annual reports that the expenditures for the preceding year amounted to $491,571.86; a new central police station had been completed; the force was composed of 317 members; there had been 9,751 arrests during the year.

216 The following is from the report for 1866, of L. M. Hubby, president of the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati line: "The new passenger depot at Cleveland, costing some $475,000, and in which this company has one-fourth interest, was so far completed as to be opened for use on the 12th day of November last. . . . Its erection was indispensable, as the old depot, being erected, over the waters of the lake, upon piles, from general decay had become unsafe for the passage onto it of heavy locomotives and trains of cars loaded with passengers."

217 Charles Whittlesey was born in Southington, Conn., on October 4th, 1808. He was brought by his parents to Tallmadge, Ohio, in 1813. He received an education in the common schools,. and at an academy, and in 1827 became a cadet at West Point, from which he graduated in 1831. He served in the Black Hawk War, and also tendered his service to the government during the Seminole and Mexican wars. He opened a law office in Cleveland; was part owner of the "Whig and Herald;" became assistant geologist of Ohio. In this and like capacities, he gave a public service of inestimable value. He offered his service to his country in 1861; and resigned in 1862 because of ill-health. As a writer upon historical and scientific subject, he added many valuable contributions to the literature of the West, while his service as president of the historical society above-named was of en enduring and valuable character. He died in October 18th, 1886. An appreciative memorial of Colonel Whittlesey, from the pen of Judge Charles C. Baldwin, may be found in Tract No, 68, Western Reserve Historical Society.

218 The full history of this great society may be found in Vol. III, Tract No. 74, p. 123, of the publications of the Western Reserve Historical Society, in a sketch written by D. W. Manchester, entitled: "Historical Sketch of the Western Reserve Historical Society." A list of some of the Society’ most important possessions is there given.

219 A very entertaining history of this institution may be found in the "Magazine of Western History," Vol.. VII, p. 55, from the pen of W. H. Brett, the present librarian. It is entitled: "The Rise and Growth of the Cleveland Public Library." An examination of the annual report of that institution, for the year ending August 31st, 1895, furnishes some suggestive figures, as to its growth and present extended usefulness. Books on hand, 96,921. Issued from the main and branch libraries, 959, 169 volumes. Visitors to the reference rooms, 105,854. Books consulted, 78,923. Branch libraries, 3—one on Pearl Street; one on Miles Avenue; one on Woodland Avenue. Number of employees, 37.

220 Were a list to be made of the men who have been most active in connection with Charitable and reformatory work in Cleveland, the name of Joseph Perkins would stand at or very near the head. He was the son of General Simon Perkins, whose public record has been already referred to. He was born at Warren, Ohio, on July 5th, 1819. On the death of his father, great business responsibilities fell upon him. He removed to Cleveland, and in 1853 became president of the Bank of Commerce. From that time onward, he was actively, or through his capital, connected with many of the banking, railroad, and other business organizations of the city. His whole life was devoted to many forms of charitable labor—in the church, the temperance cause, the care of homeless children, the reform of the fallen, the education of the masses; and his money went in unstinted measure, wherever his heart was enlisted. Mr. Perkins died at Saragtoga, New York, on August 26th, 1885.

221 Two years previous to the taking of the step above described, looking to the formation of this society, Mr. Hodge had introduced in the City Council an ordinance to prevent and punish cruelty to dumb animals. This was passed on April 11, 1871, and was the first step taken by the Cleveland law-makers in that direction. As but little attention was paid to the law, the mayor embodied it in a proclamation, which was posted throughout the city. Being a member of the State Legislature about this time, Mr. Hodge introduced three bills, each intended for the better protection of children and dumb animals, all of which became laws. On March 10, 1874, he also called a meeting of prominent men, from various parts of the State, to be held at the Neil House in Columbus, and at that gathering, a State society was organized, with Gen. J. W. Fitch of Cleveland, as president.

222 Richard C. Parsons, whose public labors have been mentioned often in the foregoing pages, was born in New London, Conn., on October 10, 1826. He became a member of the Cleveland bar in 1851; has served as a member of the City Council, and State Legislature; was consul at Rio Janeiro; collector of internal revenue at Cleveland; and marshal of the United States Supreme Court. He was elected to Congress from the Cuyahoga district in 1872. The Cleveland breakwater is, in no small degree, a monument to his zeal and energy. He became chief owner and editor of the "Cleveland Herald" in 1876, and after retirement from that position served for a time as a national bank examiner. Mr. Parsons has made his mark as an orator and writer, and for several years past, has served as the efficient president of the Early Settlers’ Association.

223 Jeptha H. Wade was born in Seneca County, New York, on August 11, 1811, and died in Cleveland on August 9, 1890. He began life as a portrait painter, and with camera and brush made his way in the world until 1847, when he became interested in the newly-created electric telegraph, and took a contract for the construction of a line from Jackson to Detroit, Michigan. He was of great aid in the development of telegraphy, and was one of the prime movers in the creation of the great Western Union Telegraph Company. He was one of the originators of the first Pacific telegraph line. He became largely interested in railroads, being officially connected with the chief lines touching Cleveland. He was also an active figure in the banking circles of Cleveland, and connected with may other lines of business and manufacture. His generosity was great, and there were few of the beneficent charities of the city that could not count upon his constant and generous aid.

224 William J. Gordon was born on September 30, 1818, in Monmouth County, New Jersey. He began business life at an early age, and although but twenty-one years of age when he came to Cleveland, in 1839, he had already seen several years of mercantile life, and shown admirable business qualities. It was not long before he was recognized as one of the active business forces of the city, as the head of the wholesale grocery house of W. J. Gordon & Co., and of Gordon, McMillan & Co. He as one of the pioneers in opening the iron ore regions of Lake Superior, owning large interests in the Cleveland Iron Mining Company. He was connected with several manufacturing establishments of Cleveland, and was known all over the country as owner of one of the finest stock farms in the West, and of several horses of a national reputation. He as a traveller, reader, and man of culture. He died at Cleveland, on November 23, 1892.

225 "Second Annual Report of the Board of Park Commissioners," 1894, p. 11. This report, and that for 1895, give a detailed history of the park system as managed by the commission, accompanied by many illustrations, showing portions of the parks and approaches thereto.

226 The Park Commission lost two of its ablest and most industrious members, in 1895. Hon. Amos Townsend, who died at St. Augustine, Fla., on March 17th, was for many years connected with the business and public interests of Cleveland. He was born near Pittsburg, Pa., in 1831., was in business in Mansfield, Ohio, for a time, and removed to Cleveland, in 1858. He was, for many years, a member of the wholesale grocery firm of Edwards, Townsend & Co., served for ten years as a member of the City Council, during seven of which he filled the office of president. He was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1873; and in 1876 was elected to Congress by the Republicans of Cuyahoga County, and ably served in that office for several terms. The other loss to the commission came in the death of its able president, Charles H. Bulkley, who died on December 9, 1895. The vacancies thus created were filled by the appointment of J. H. McBride, and L. E. Holden; Mr. McBride being elected to the office of president.

227 "The Superior Courts," by Hon. G. M. Barber.--"Bench and Bar of Cleveland," p. 50.

228 The full history of this movement may be found in the following work: "History of the Woman’s Temperance Crusade," by Mrs. Annie Wittenmyer; with an introduction by Frances E. Willard.

229 This is said to have been the first flagstaff of Bessemer steel ever erected. It was the gift of Henry Chisholm, on behalf of the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company; was placed in position near the center of the Square by David Price and James Pannell; and inspired a stirring poem from the pen of F. T. Wallace ("Men and Events of Half a Century"), a stanza or so of which are here quoted:
                                                                                The banner that a hundred years
                                                                                Has waved above our good ship’s keel,
                                                                                Upheld by oak or mast of pine,
                                                                                Now proudly floats from staff of steel.

                                                                                Soon Lakeview, Woodland, Riverside
                                                                                Will keep the graves where kindred kneel—
                                                                                Of all who now salute the stars
                                                                                That wave above that staff of steel.

                                                                                And in remoter ages still,
                                                                                The antiquary’s worthy zeal
                                                                                Will note the tombs and mural stones
                                                                                Of those who gave that staff of steel !

230 Charles F. Brush was born in Euclid, Ohio, on March 17, 1849. He attended the schools of Cleveland, and pursued a special course at Ann Arbor, Mich., graduating in 1869, as a mining engineer. As a boy, he was always experimenting, and at work with batteries, magnets, and other mechanical and electrical appliances. He never experimented, however for the mere pleasure of toying with the forces of nature. Each model that found construction at his hand, must have not only a use, and a power to perform some portion of the world’s labor, but also be an answer to some expressed demand. This trait of character has found expression all through the labors of Mr. Brush, and is one of the marks that set him apart from the main body of the world’s great inventors.

231 A complete narrative of this great event may be found in the following work: "The Ashtabula Disaster," by Rev. Stephen D. Peet.

232 "Early Settlers’ Association of Cuyahoga County, Ohio," by H. M. Addison.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. VIII, p. 281.

233 Mr. Addison has related his experiences, in the paper before quoted. He met with very little encouragement , at first. Those to whom he presented it seemed to think—and some said so in so many words—that it would not be a success, and declined signing it until others had done so. On presenting it to the venerable General H. H. Dodge, he said, ‘O, get some of tho old folks to sign it first.’ After several similar repulses, Mr. Addison went to the residence of George Mygatt, where he obtained the first signature to the call. On his return, , he called on General John Crowell, who was the second one to sign. Among others who signed were John W. Allen, J. P. Bishop, D. R, Tilden, Charles Whittlesey, H. B. Payne, John A. Foot, Harvey Rice, S. Williamson, R. C. Parsons, H. H. Dodge, Geo. C. Dodge, T. P. Handy, Sherlock J. Andrews, J. H. Wade, William Bingham, George B. Merwin, and W. H. Doan.

234 The opening stanza of the ode was as follows:
                                                                                "’Tis here, when nature reigned supreme,
                                                                                    That General Cleaveland trod the wild;
                                                                                And saw an infant in his dream,
                                                                                    And with his name baptized the child."

235 The full report of these exercises may be found in the "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," No. 9, p. 215.

236 The accompanying illustration, "A Meeting at the Ark," was taken from a painting which William Case ordered, in 1858. It is a portrait group of the original Arkites, in their characteristic attitudes, as they stood or lounged about the room.

237 "The Ark has a history. These two remarkable men (William and Leonard Case), who were the founders and promoters of the Ark, and all that accumulated around, and in tine grew out of it, ultimately achieved their grand designs, in establishing the Kirtland Society of Natural Science, the Case Hall, its receptacle; the Case Library, and, above all and finally, the Case School of Applied Sciences."—"The Log Book," by D. W. Cross.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. IX, p. 686.

238 This college came into being in answer to a demand of the New Englanders of the Western Reserve. In 1801, the territorial Assembly was petitioned, by residents of this section, for a charter for a college, to he located on the Western Reserve. This was refused. In 1803, the first General Assembly of Ohio incorporated the Erie Literary Seminary, composed of residents of Trumbull County, which then comprised the entire Western Reserve. Under this charter, an academy was established in Burton, in 1805. Out of this institution grew another, the charter of which was granted in 1826, and the corner-stone of the first building was laid at Hudson, on April 26th of the same year. The first students of this Western Reserve College were received in December, and temporarily instructed at an academy at Tallmadge. In 1827, the new building at Hudson was occupied and the preparatory department established. These facts are taken from "A History of Western Reserve College," by Rev. Carroll Cutler, D.D.

239 "Soon after the war closed, he (Mr. Stone) met with a great misfortune, in the death of his only son, Adelbert Barnes Stone, a youth of the most amiable character, and the highest promise, who was drowned while bathing in the Connecticut river, being at the time a student of Yale College. . . . On condition that the Western Reserve College at Hudson should remove to Cleveland, and assume in its classical department the name of his lost and lamented son, he endowed it with the munificent sum of half a million dollars, which, at his desire, after his death, was increased by his family to the amount of six hundred thousand dollars." "Amasa Stone," by John Hay.—"Magazine of Western History," Vol. III., p. 110.

240 Cleveland has not, as yet, been especially noted in the line of political conventions, beyond those of a local or State character, although one of the most popular convention cities in the country, in the way of gatherings of a miscellaneous character. She had, however, the somewhat doubtful honor of being chosen for the holding of a convention of those who, in 1864, opposed the re-nomination of Mr. Lincoln, on the ground that he was too conservative in the conduct of the war. On May 31st of that year, a small, but radical, wing of the Republican party held a convention here, which placed in nomination John C. Fremont and John Cochrane, upon a platform that demanded a more determined prosecution of the war, and the confiscation of the estates of those in rebellion, which were to be distributed among the soldiers and settlers. General Fremont accepted the nomination, but upon finding that the movement was not actively supported, withdrew, in the September following.

241 "The Forest City: A Picture of the Past, Present and Future of Cleveland," by J. H Kennedy.—"Chicago Inter-Ocean," March 31, 1883.

242 The able corps of assistants who aided in this work of placing the schools of Cleveland upon a modern basis were: H. M. James and L. W. Day, supervising principals; L. R. Klemm and A. J. Esch, special superintendents of German; Harriet L. Keeler and Kate S. Brennan, supervisors of primary instruction; Frank Aborn, special teacher of drawing; N,. Coe Stewart, special teacher of music; A. P. Root and A. A. Clark of penmanship.

243 The great value of this school was shown by Superintendent Hinsdale, who said in his report for 1886, that of the 603 teachers in the schools in the year before, 240 were graduates of the Normal School; that the school had "strongly tended to raise the standard of general culture and of professional ability of the teachers." The successive principals of this school have been: Alexander Forbes, Elroy M. Avery, Oliver Arey, Ellen G. Reveley, and Lemira W. Hughes.

244 The figures here given are from the annual report of the school department for the year ending August 31, 1895: Enumeration of children of school age, 91,453; registered in the elementary and high schools, 48,345; attending the Normal Training School, 231; average daily attendance in all the schools, 36,540; average number of teachers employed during the year, 1,048.

245 The wording of this proposed amendment was as follows: "The manufacture of and traffic in intoxicating liquors to be used as a beverage are forever prohibited; and the General Assembly shall provide by law for the enforcement of this provision."

246 "In ten weeks," says one historian of this great movement, "1,372,370 pages of Second Amendment literature was given out by the Cleveland W.C.T.TU." This is from an article entitled, "History of the Second Amendment Campaign in Cleveland," by F. Jennie Duty, in "Amendment Herald" of March 13, 1884.

247 In this connection the actual fire losses in Cleveland since 1854 may be of interest:

1854----$302,724.76   1868----$300,451.76   1882----$    364,646.08
1855----    96,008.68   1869----  196,985.19   1883----      502,449.92
1856----  115,342.40   1870----  378,635.61   1884----   1,522,861.84
1857----    88,765.55   1871----  300,453.77   1885----      429,241.73
1858----    29,050.80   1872----  309,725.22   1886----      105,879.39
1859----    50,903.50   1873----  348,410.94   1887----      277,573.10
1860----    35,506.80   1874----  641,504.37   1888----      541,248.85
1861----  102,045.50   1875----  137,102.66   1889----      373,009.88
1862----    87,150.28   1876----  253,559.75   1890----      308,482.03
1863----    96,008.68   1877----    25,910.00   1891----   1,076,260.01
1864----  115,360.50   1878----  207,836.95   1892----   1,482,020.79
1865----  261,341.48   1879----  215,357.96   1893----      684,472.16
1866----  173,990.62   1880----  268,799.58   1894----      643,012.90
1867----  206,902.83   1881----  365,400.58   1895----      524,014.23

       By the courtesy of A. I Truesdell, secretary of the Cleveland Board of Underwriters, the following points of information can be added: The amount of premiums written in Cleveland in fire insurance during 1895, was a little over $1,250,000. Losses for the past twelve or thirteen years have averaged about 60 per cent.

248 The story is told that Edwards wrote out his summons in this original form: "In the name of God, amen. Take Notice that We, Rodolphus Edwards, a Justice of the Peace by the Grace of the Almighty, do hereby Summons you to appear before Us, under dread of Dire penalties and Severe tribulations."

249 "The Justices and their Courts," by W. R. Rose.—"The Bench and Bar of Cleveland," p. 59.

250 The board has had but few changes in membership, in the ten years of its existence. Those who have served, or are in service at present, in addition to the members above named, are John F. Weh, Victor Gutzweiler, W. M. Bayne, Percy W. Rice, Hugh Buckley, Jr., Carl Claussen, Samuel Etzensperger, and Edward C. Kenney. Secretary Gleason was succeeded by Charles P. Salen, who served from 1890 to 1894, and who, in turn, was succeeded by L. J. Rowbottom whose term expires in 1898.

251 Henry Hoehn was born in Bavaria, and came to the United States when fourteen years of age. He served in the Union Army during the Rebellion, making an excellent record, and was mustered out of service in August, 1865. On May 1, 1866, he was appointed a pat4olman on the Cleveland police force, and advanced steadily in the line of promotion, becoming a captain in 1877. On July 1 1893, he was appointed to the office of ‘Superintendent of Police, to succeed Jacob W.. Schmitt, resigned. In accordance with his own request, Superintendent Hoehn was retired, in July, 1896. Lieutenant George E. Corner was appointed to the vacancy.

252 The tragedy of which the above was the culmination, was perhaps the greatest in the criminal line that has formed a part of the record of Cuyahoga County. Other leading crimes and executions have been as follows: James Parks, hanged June 1, 1855, for the murder of William Beatson; John W. Hughes, hanged February 9, 1866, for the murder of Tamzen Parsons; Alexander McConnell, executed August 10, 1866, for the killing of Mrs. William Colvin; Lewis Davis, hanged February 4, 1869, for the killing of David P. Skinner; John Cooper, hanged April 25, 1872, for the murder of a colored man named Swing; Stephen Hood, hanged April 20, 1874, for the killing of Green Hood; William Adin, hanged June 22, 1876, for the murder of his wife, his stepdaughter, and Mrs. George L. Benton; Charles R. McGill, hanged February 13, 1879, for the killing of Mary Kelley. This was the last legal hanging ever witnessed in Cuyahoga County, the law being so changed that all executions in Ohio should occur within the walls of the State Penitentiary, at Columbus.

253 "Annual Report of the Trade and Commerce of Cleveland,: 1892, p. 164.

254 John Huntington was born in Preston, England, on March 8th, 1832. He came to America in 1854, and made Cleveland his home; carried on a roofing business; became interested in oil in the early days; became a stockholder in the Standard Oil Company, and made a great fortune. He also interested himself in local political affairs at an early date, entered the City Council, where he remained for years, and was connected with the inception and carrying out of many of Cleveland’s most important public works. He was always a firm believer in the city’s future. Mr. Huntington died on January 10th, 1893, in London, England.

255 "Epworth League Workers," by Jacob Embury Price, p. 30.

256 The act was entitled: "A Bill to provide a more efficient Government for the Cities of the Second Grade of the First Class." Passed March 16, 1891.--Ohio Laws, Vol. 88, p. 105.

257 When the newly-created Board of Control held its first session, it contained an unusual amount of municipal experience, having no less than three ex-mayors among the members—W. G. Rose, R. R. Herrick, and George W. Gardner.

258 A complete history of this reorganization may be found in the society’s publications, Tract No. 85, entitled "Charter and Reorganization of the Society, 1891-92.

259 "Precious Records."—"Cleveland Plain Dealer," May 20, 1895.

260 The Society is still in able hands, the officers (April, 1896) being as follows: President, Henry C. Ranney; corresponding secretary, Albert L. Withington; recording secretary, Wallace H. Cathcart; treasurer, Horace B. Corner; librarian and curator, Peter Neff. Mr. Neff is industriously and intelligently devoted to his responsibilities as executive officer, and the writer in under obligation to him, in connection with various points of information in the present work.

261 The names attached to this charter of 1866 were as follows: Philo Chamberlain, A. V. Cannon, R. T. Lyon, E. D. Childs, J. C. Sage, W. F. Otis, A. Hughes, M. B. Clark, C. W. Coe, W. Murray, H. S. Davis, S. F. Lester, J. E. White, A. Quinn, J. H. Clark, George W. Gardner, S. W. Porter, E. C. Hardy, H. D. Woodward, and George Sinclair. Mr. Weatherly held the office of president from 1848 to 1864, when he was succeeded by S. F. Lester. The presidents of the board, and of the Chamber of Commerce, its successor from 1848 to 1896, with the year of election, have been as follows: 1848, Joseph L. Weatherly; 1864, S. F. Lester; 1865 Philo Chamberlain; 1867, W. F. Otis; 1868, George W. Gardner; 1869, R. T. Lyon; 1870, A. J. Begges; 1871, Thomas Walton; 1872, Charles Hickox; 1873, B. H. York; 1874, F. H. Morse; 1875, H. Pomerene; 1877, B. A. DeWolf; 1879, Daniel Martin; 1886, William Edwards; 1888, George W. Lewis; 1889, William Edwards; 1893, Henry R. Groff; 1894, Luther Allen; 1895, Wilson M. Day; 1896, J. G. W. Cowles. The treasurers have been: 1848, R. T. Lyon; 1865, J. H. Clark; 1867, J. F. Freeman; 1870, J. D. Pickands; 1871, A. Wiener; 1872, S. S. Gardner; 1879, Theodore Simmons; 1884, X. X. Crum; 1887, A. J. Begges; 1894, Geo. S. Russell; 1896, Samuel Mather. The secretaries: 1848, Charles W. Coe; 1849, S. S. Coe; 1854, H. B. Tuttle; 1860, C. W. Coe; 1862, H. B. Tuttle; 1864, Arthur H. Quinn; 1865, J C. Sage; 1879, Theodore Simmons; 1884, X. X. Crum; 1887, A. J. Begges; 1893, Ryerson Ritchie (present incumbent).

262 "Annual Report of the Trade and Commerce of Cleveland,: 1892, p. 151.

263 "The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce: Reports and Proceedings," 1894, p. 11.

264 "The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce: Reports and Proceedings," 1895, p. 43.

265 The story is told, in all its details, in the valuable work to which reference has heretofore been made. This is the "History of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument," by William J. Gleason president of the Monument Commission.

266 "History of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument," William J. Gleason, p. 346.

267 "The entire cost of the memorial, and its surroundings, aggregates in round figures $280,000. Not a dollar of this amount has passed through the hands of the Commission,--all moneys being collected by the County Treasurer, and paid out by him, on warrants drawn by the County Auditor, when ordered so to do in writing by the Monument Executive Committee and its Secretary."—"History of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument," by William J. Gleason, p. 477.

268 For much of the information contained in the above, the writer is under obligation to one of the most thorough and admirable statistical handbooks, it has ever been his privilege to examine. This is the: "Annual Report of the Trade and Commerce of Cleveland: Prepared under the direction of the Cleveland Board of Trade." Issued December 1, 1892. Publication committee, David A. Dangler, John C. Covert, Wilson M. Day: Statistician, Jon M. Mulrooney.

269 The population of Cleveland, as given in decades, from 1830 to 1890, has been as follows:

1830, United States Census . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1,075
1840,      "        "            "     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6,071
1850,      "        "            "     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17,054
1860,      "        "            "     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43,838
1870,      "        "            "     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92,825
1880,      "        "            "     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160,146
1890,      "        "            "     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261,353

The city directory computations, since that data, give the following totals:

1892, City Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  309,243
1893,      "        "       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  322,932
1894,      "        "       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  344,595
1895,      "        "       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  352,629
1896,      "        "       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  368,895

270 Chicago and Buffalo outranked Cleveland, as they were the terminals of the most important of the lake shipping, and Escanaba, because if its immense shipments of ore,--the movement and sale of which Cleveland largely controlled.

271 By the courtesy of the United States Commissioner of Navigation, I am enabled to bring these figures up to June 30, 1895, and present the following significant totals from his report, as to the shipbuilding and shipowning record of Cuyahoga County:

Number of vessels enrolled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               257
Tonnage of vessels enrolled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  236,843.50

Number and gross tonnage of sailing vessels, steam vessels, etc.:

Sailing vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    75
Sailing vessels--Tonnage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       50,407.49
Steam vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 174
Steam vessels--Tonnage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     182,472.59
Barges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       8
Barges--Tonnage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        12,448.20

Class, number, and gross tonnage of vessels built:

Steam vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      4
Steam vessels--Tonnage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       12,448.20

272 "Notwithstanding the clean history of Cleveland’s banking business, under State and National laws, for full three-quarters of a century past—its freedom from failures or serious disturbances of any kind—there is abundant evidence of the liberal policy of the directors of these institutions, in the substantial growth of manufacturing and commercial interests. No speculative influences go to swell the volume of banking business; neither do transactions of a speculative nature figure in Cleveland’s weekly bank clearings, as published throughout the country, in comparison with the clearing-house statements from other cities."—"Board of Trade Report," 1892, p. 129.

273 "Wonderful instances of the increasing value of property, in the business section of the city, are found in the daily transactions. The value of realty, on Superior street, ranges from $2,500 to $4,000 per foot front, and the whole street, from Water street to the Public Square, could be disposed of at such figures, very readily, if the owners could be prevailed upon to sell. . . . It is estimated that no less than sixty large allotments have been laid out, in the suburban districts, within the past three years, and that within the same period, homes to the number of about 6,000 have been provided, after this system alone."—"Board of Trade Report," 1892, p. 136.

274 The number of structures above given was arrived at by actual count of the buildings, reported by the Ward assessors.

275 The postmasters of Cleveland, from the establishment of the office in 1805 to 1896, have been as follows: Elisha Norton, John Walworth, Ashbel, W. Walworth, Daniel Kelley, Irad Kelley, Daniel Worley, Aaron Barker, Benjamin Andrews, Timothy P. Spencer, Daniel M. Haskell, J. W. Gray, Benjamin Harrington, Edwin Cowles, George A. Benedict, John W. Allen, N. B. Sherwin, Thomas Jones, Jr., William W. Armstrong, A. T. Anderson, John C. Hutchins.

276 It may be permitted, at this point, to name the Clevelanders who have represented the city in Congress, with the dates of service, as follows: John W. Allen, 1837-41; Sherlock J. Andrews, 1841-43; Edward Wade, 1853-61; Albert G. Riddle, 1861-63; Rufus P. Spaulding, 1863-69; Richard C. Parsons, 1873-75; Henry B. Payne, 1875-77; Amos Townsend, 1877-83; Martin A. Foran, 1883-89; Theodore E. Burton, 1889-91; Tom L. Johnson, 1891-95; Theodore E. Burton, 1895-97.

277 A mention of the titles of some of these earlier ventures may be permitted: "Second Adventist," "Ohio American," "Declaration of Independence," "Weekly Times," "Reserve Battery," "Spirit of Freedom." "Temple of Honor," "Spirit of the Lakes," "Family Visitor," "Cleveland Commercial," "Harpoon," "Golden Rule," "Forest City," "True Democrat," "Annals of Science," "Commercial Gazette," "Germania," "Spiritual Universe," "Daily Review," "Buckeye Democrat," "Wool Growers’ Reporter," "Agitator," "Dodges’ Literary Museum," "Vanguard," "Daily Dispatch," "Gleaner," "Brainard’s Musical World," "Analyst," "Literary Museum," "Temperance Era," "Ohio Spiritualist," "Printing Gazette," "Prohibition Era," "New Era.," "Real Estate Recorder," "Mechanics’ and Blacksmiths’ Journal," "Coopers’ Journal," "Illustrated Bazaar," "House and Garden," "Hygenia," "Pulpit." "Cross and Crown," "Columbia," "Our Youth," "Cuyahoga County Blade," "Household Treasure," "Indicator," "Pictorial World," Household Gem," etc. etc.

278 "More than sixty-five years ago, the "Cleaveland Herald" first saw the light. To-day, after a longer life than is granted to most newspapers, it rests from its labors. . . In closing the record of the ‘Herald,’ we can justly claim it to have been a clean, and honorable, as well as useful, record. We know that, in passing out of sight, it will leave behind it a good name, and thousands who will mourn its departure, as that of an old, a trusted, and valued friend."—"The ‘Herald’s’ Farewell," by J. H. A. Bone, in the final issue, March 15, 1885.

279 Edwin Cowles was born in Austinburg, Ashtabula County, O., on September 19, 1825. He learned the printer’s trade, in Cleveland, and, at the age of eighteen, engaged in business for himself, as the junior member of the firm of Smead & Cowles. His connection with the newspaper business has been above related. He was one of the founders of the Republican party, and was boldly outspoken, in defence and support of its principles, all through his life. As an editor, he was utterly without fear, and adhered to that which he believed to be the right, with a tenacity that made him a power, in any cause to which he gave his support. He opposed slavery, and supported the vigorous prosecution of the war, with all the power that lay within him. He was appointed postmaster of Cleveland, in 1861, and held that office for five years. He was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1876 and of 1884, and, in 1877, was appointed honorary commissioner to the Paris Exposition. He died on March 4, 1890, after a life of great industry and exceptional usefulness.

280 Dear Sir:--You ask me to state the policy, politics and principles of the "Cleveland Leader." The policy of the "Leader" is to get and to print the news, and to treat all men and all classes with exact justice. The "Leader" is a Republican newspaper—stalwart in its politics, but fair enough, I am sure, to expose and condemn a Republican rascal, and to cheerfully commend an honest and competent Democrat, when one is discovered to be in office. The "Leader" believes in the people—in their morality, and in their patriotism. It stands for the enforcement of the law, the preservation of order, and rights of all men, the dignity of labor, the protection of property, the Constitution of the United States, and the Stars and Stripes. It seeks to induce people to live rightly, and to think rightly. It believes in the public schools, and insists that no public money shall be appropriated for sectarian purposes. It has fought, and is now fighting, for civil service reform, in National, State, and Municipal government. It maintains that Cleveland is the best city in Ohio, and that Ohio is the best State in America. But above all, the "Leader" exalts the truth.
                                                                                                                                              Very truly yours,
Mr. James H. Kennedy.                                                                                                                                                                   James B. Morrow.
Cleveland, O., June 6, 1896.

281 Dear Sir:--It is the policy of the "Cleveland Press" to give all the news; to permit the people to conduct their own politics; and to maintain those principles which it deems right, regardless of sect, political affiliation, or social position. of those who may be interested in those principles.
                                                                                                                                              Yours respectfully,
                                                                                                                                                                               R. F. Paine,
Cleveland, O., June 9th, 1896                                                                                                                                                Editor.

282 Dear Mr. Kennedy:--The intention is to make the "Recorder," first of all, a newspaper. It contains all the news, stated in such form that is may be quickly read by the busiest man. It is the belief of its founders, that in this hustling age, the publisher who saves the time of his readers by carefully editing the news, is doing them a service. The "Recorder" is a protest against the mammoth sheets of the time, that have grown up through the enormous reduction in the cost of composition, print paper, and printing, through the introduction of modern machinery. It is unique, and original, in almost every respect, and the hearty way in which it has been received by the reading public is a sure indication that it is on the right track. In politics, it is strictly independent, and will in the future, as in the past, support only such men and measures as it believes are for the best interests of the people. It will never take into consideration for a moment, the question of whether its course is likely to be popular or not.

       It will constantly depend upon the truth and justice of its position for final vindication, and it cares little whether immediate victory crowns its efforts or not. The publishers of the "Recorder" believe that its establishment marks a new era in American journalism. The day of the honest newspaper, which gives all the news honestly, and which is not controlled by party, clique or faction, certainly ought to dawn about now. The "Recorder" wants to be a part of that dawn.
                                                                                                                                                George A. Robertson.
Cleveland, O., Julyne 9th, 1896                                                                                                                                                Editor.

283 The following statement, as to policy and principles, is authorized by the "World" management": "The ‘Cleveland World’ is Republican in politics, never refusing to criticize the shortcomings of those elevated to office by the Republican party, if criticism is necessary, yet its unswerving loyalty to Republican principles has been one of the sources of strength to the organization, in its city, its county and its State. Its advocacy of the eight-hour day, its practical carrying out of the eight-hour day, within its office, and its encouragement of all that is best and right, for the advancement of the laboring men of its constituency, and of the whole country have made it the accepted friend of labor and its advocates."

284 "Annals of the Early Settlers’ Association," Vol. III., No. 2, pp. 45 and 106.

285 It is proper to state here that a preliminary fund of $8,113 was raised by popular subscription, followed by a general fund of $63,740.25. The chief work in connection therewith was performed by a finance committee, consisting of C. C. Burnett, chairman. F. F. Hickox and F. L. Alcott, vice-chairmen; Myron T. Herrick, treasurer; Henry Humphreys, secretary; William Edwards, George T. McIntosh, Henry S. Blossom, D. F. Brush, and John Meckes. All expenses of the celebration were eventually paid, leaving a balance in the treasury.

286 "Cleveland Leader," July 23, 1896.

287 "Yesterday was a day never to be forgotten in the history of Cleveland. It was a fitting celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the founding of a town, destined to become one of the greatest cities of the Republic. There is cause for universal rejoicing that the celebration has been so auspiciously opened."—"Cleveland :Plain Dealer," July 23, 1896.

288 "Cleveland Plain Dealer," July 28, 1896.

289 In the course of his remarks, Mr. Covert suggested a modification of the generally accepted statement, that pioneer Nathaniel Doan was a blacksmith. He spoke, he said, on the authority of members of the Doan family. "He built a blacksmith shop," said Mr. Covert, "a hotel, a saleratus factory, and a store, because they were needed. Nathaniel Doan was postmaster, and justice of the peace, for many years, and religious services were conducted by him, in his house." It will be remembered, that the Connecticut Land Company voted a grant of one city lot to Nathaniel Doan, the consideration being that he should "reside thereon, as blacksmith." Colonel Charles Whittlesey, in his "Early History of Cleveland, p. 331, says: "Mr. Doan was the blacksmith of the Land Company, whose business it was, during the progress of the survey, to keep their pack-horses well shod. In 1798, he erected a rude shop, on the south side of Superior street." The probability is, that he did not personally follow that trade in Cleveland although the builder of the shop which his arrangement with the Land Company caused to be erected.