CLEVELAND’S CENTENNIAL YEAR.
The dawn of July 22, 1896, saw the completion of Cleveland’s first century of existence, reckoned from that earlier July day which witnessed the landing of Moses Cleaveland, and his little company of surveyors, upon the green banks of the Cuyahoga River. In the pages which have gone before, we have learned of the wonderful things that these one hundred years of faithful and fruitful labor have accomplished.
It was, of course, a matter of general agreement that this Centennial anniversary should be fittingly celebrated. The first public suggestion of concerted action came, quite properly, from that organization which has accomplished so much in the collection and preservation of local history—the Early Settlers’ Association of Cuyahoga County.
At the annual meeting of that body, on July 22, 1893, John C. Covert offered the following resolution:284 "That the president appoint a committee of nine persons, he to be the chairman, to confer with the City Council, Chamber of Commerce, and the other local bodies, to provide for a proper celebration of the Centennial anniversary of the landing of Moses Cleavelend, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, on July 22, 1796."
This resolution was unanimously adopted. In obedience to its directions, the president appointed the following gentlemen members of such committee: John C. Covert, A. J. Williams, Bolivar Butts, James Barnett, George F. Marshall, Wilson S. Dodge, Solon Burgess, H. M. Addison. Richard C. Parsons, president of the Asso-
ciation, became, by the terms of the resolution, chairman of the committee.
The important question thus raised was discussed favorably by the general public. The officers and members of the Chamber of Commerce showed an especial interest in the matter. At a meeting of the Chamber, held on November 21, 1893, the following resolutions were adopted:
Whereas, The year 1896 will mark the one-hundredth anniversary of the founding of the City of Cleveland; and,
The following gentlemen were appointed members of that committee: Wilson M. Day, chairman; W. J. Akers, H. A. Garfield, S. F. Haserot, Webb C. Hayes, Geo/ W. Kinney, O. M. Stafford.
This committee submitted an elaborate report to the Chamber, which was adopted with enthusiasm. The same committee, substantially, was reappointed in 1894, and made a further report, which was likewise adopted. Its closing recommendation was that a commission be formed, consisting of the governor of the State, the secretary of State, the auditor of State, the president of the Senate, and the speaker of the House, ex officio; the mayor, the director of law, the director of public works, the president of the City Council, and the director of schools, ex officio, and fifteen citizens at large.
Cleveland was thus committed, through her early settlers and representative business men, to a fitting celebration of the one-hundredth anniversary of her birth.
A conference was held on May 11, 1895, by Robert E. McKisson, mayor of Cleveland; Samuel G. McClure, sec-
retary of the Board of Control; Wilson M. Day, president of the Chamber of Commerce, and Ryerson Ritchie, secretary of the Chamber, in which the way was prepared for the work of the future. At a second meeting of the above-named gentlemen and representatives of the Early Settlers’ Association’s Committee, held on May 17th, the full Centennial Commission was selected, as follows:
State: William McKinley, Governor; Samuel M. Taylor, secretary of state; Edward W. Poe, auditor of state; Andrew L. Harris, president of the Senate; Alexander Boxwell, speaker of the house.
Municipality: Robert E. McKisson, Mayor; Minor G. Norton, director of law; Darwin E. Wright, director of public works; Dan F. Reynolds, Jr., president of the City Council; H. Q. Sargent, director of schools.
At Large: Wm. J. Akers, Chas. W. Chase, Martin A. Foran, John F. Pankhurst, Henry M. Brooks, H. M. Addison, L. E. Holden, A. J. Williams, Moritz Joseph, Richard C. Parsons, Bolivar Butts, Wilson M. Day, Augustus Zehring, Geo. f. Marshall, Geo. W. Kinney.
The first officers were: Honorary President, William McKinley.
At a meeting of the executive committee of the commission, it was decided to recommend Wilson M. Day, president of the Chamber of Commerce, and a most active and intelligent advocate of all measures proposed for the city’s good, for the important position of director-general. At a meeting of the Commission, on July 11th, Mr. Day was, therefore, unanimously elected. L. E. Holden was chosen his successor, in the office of first vice-president. It was also decided, at this meeting, that the celebration would open on July 22nd, and close on September 10, 1896.
Thus equipped, the Cleveland Centennial Commission
opened headquarters in the City Hall, and entered upon the accomplishment of the important labor committed to its hands. It was the general opinion that an exposition could best set forth the greatness of Cleveland, as a center of business activities, and, at the same time, commemorate her Centennial birthday. A careful study of the whole question was entered upon. Committees visited various other cities, where such expositions had been held; many conferences were had with business men of Cleveland and elsewhere. All the arguments for an against were carefully considered. A suggestion was finally made for the purchase of exposition grounds and the erection of the needed buildings. This was taken into consideration, at a series of meetings of business men, but from a lack of the needed funds, and doubts about the raising of the same, the shortness of the time remaining, and other valid considerations, the project of an exposition was abandoned in the first month of the Centennial year.
Meanwhile, the preparations for a due celebration of the event, along other lines, had been pushed forward. A fund of some sixty thousand dollars285 was raised. The commissioners and their director-general desired to make the celebration one of the greatest and most successful every seen in the West. In addition to arranging all the needed details for a series of events
of a general character, a great task was undertaken in securing and providing for various conventions, and other gatherings, that were to be a part of this summer of patriotic celebration. A department, under the control the women of Cleveland, was added, and to it was assigned the work of seeing that the part taken by women in the building up of Cleveland, should be fittingly recognized and commemorated.
It was decided that the series of events for the Centennial summer should commence with July 19th, the Sabbath preceding the anniversary of July 22nd, and end with September 10th, the day made memorable by Commodore Perry’s decisive victory on Lake Erie. The main features of the programme may be briefly outlined as follows:
July 19th.—Sacred and patriotic selections on Trinity Cathedral chimes, at 8 a. m.; Centennial services in the churches, at 10.30 a. m.; citizens’ mass meeting in the Central Armory, at 2.20 p. m.; mass meeting of German Lutheran congregations of Cleveland and vicinity, in Music Hall, at 2.30 p. m.; Centennial services in the churches, at 7.30 p. m.; mass meeting of German Protestant congregations in Central Armory, at 7.30 p. m.
July 20th.—Opening of the Ohio National Guard, and United States Regulars’ encampment, at Camp Moses Cleaveland, at 2.30 p. m.; opening of Centennial exhibition of Cleveland School of Art, at 8 p. m.
July 21st.—Opening of the log-cabin on the Public Square, at 2 p. m.; reception at the cabin, by the women of the Early Settlers’ Association, between 10 a. m. and 5 p. m.; Centennial concert, at 7.30 p. m.
July 22nd.—Founder’s Day. Centennial salute, by the Cleveland Light Artillery, 12 midnight; national salute, at 5.30 a. m.; reception of guests, 8 to 9 a. m.; public exercises in Central Armory, at 9.30 a. m.; grand parade of military and uniformed civic organizations, at 2.30 p. m.; national salute at 5.30 p. m.; illumination of Centennial Arch at 8 p. m., followed by historical pageant,
"The Passing of the Century;" Centennial reception and ball at Grays’ Armory, at 10 p. m.
July 23rd.—New England Day. Boat ride and street railway excursion, to Ohio editors, at 9.30 and 10.15 a. m.; New England dinner, at 12.30 p. m.; carriage ride to Ohio editors, at 3 p. m.; Centennial comic opera, "From Moses to McKisson," in Euclid Avenue Opera House, at 7.30 p. m.; open air concert, at 8 p. m.
July 24th.—Wheelmen’s Day. Wheelmen’s parade, at 3 p. m. [afterwards changed, on account of rain, to July 27th]; gymnastic and athletic exhibitions by united German, Bohemian and Swiss societies, in Central Armory, at 73.0 p. m.
July 28th.—Woman’s Day. Exercises in Central Armory, from 9 a. m. to 4.15 p. m.; reception in Grays’ Armory, at 5.30 p. m.; banquet, at 7.30 p. m.
July 29th.—Early Settlers’ Day. Annual meeting of the Early Settlers’ Association, in Army and Navy Hall, at 9.30 a. m.; meeting of representatives of pioneer associations within the Western Reserve, at 12.30 p. m.
July 30th.—Western Reserve Day. National salute, at 5.30 a. m.; exercises in Central Armory, at 9.30 a. m.; military and pioneer parade, at 2.30 p. m.; open air concert, at 8 p. m.
August 10th.—Centennial yacht regatta; to continue until the evening of August 13th.
August 18th.—Centennial Floral Exhibition; to continue until the evening of August 20th.
August 22nd.—Opening of the Knights of Pythias encampment: Exercises to continue until the evening of August 29th.
September 7th.—Historical conference; sections of education, religion, and philanthropy; to continue until the afternoon of September 9th.
September 10th.—Perry’s Victory Day. National salute at 5.30 a. m.; public exercises in Central Armory, at 9.30 a. m.; grand military and industrial parade, at 2.30 p. m.; national salute, at 5.30 p. m.; spectacular enter-
tainment on the lake front, at 8 p. m., "The Battle of Lake Erie;" official banquet of the Centennial Commission, at 9.30 p. m.
There had been some changes in the Centennial Commission, since its formation, and, that justice may be done to many earnest workers not yet named, the members of that body, as it was constituted on the opening of the celebrations, may be here given, as follows:
Honorary President, Asa S. Bushnell.
State Members: Asa S. Bushnell, Governor; S. M. Taylor, secretary of state; W. D. Guilbert, auditor of state; Asa W. Jones, president of the Senate; D. L. Sleeper, speaker of the house.
Municipal Members: Robert E. McKisson, Mayor; Minor G. Norton, directror of law; Darwin E. Wright, director of public works; Frank A. Emerson, president of the City Council; H. Q. Sargent, director of schools.
Members-at-large: William J. Akers, H. M. Addison, A. T. Anderson, Bolivar Butts, Clarence E. Burke, Charles F. Brush, Charles W. Chase, George W. Cady, John C. Covert, Wilson M. Day, George Deming, William Edwards, Martin A. Foran, Kaufman Hays, H. R. Hatch, Orlando J. Hodge, L. E. Holden, James H. Hoyt, M. A. Hanna, John C. Hutchins, George W. Kinney, John Meckes, James B. Morrow, Daniel Myers, Samuel Mather, E. W. Oglebay, James M. Richardson, H. A. Sherwin, A. J. Williams, A. L. Withington Augustus Zehring.
Among those who also assisted in the labors of Centennial year, as chairmen of committees, to which special work was assigned, or in charge of sections and depart-
ments, created by the Commission, the following may be named: Finance-Executive, C. C. Burnett; Military, George A. Garretson; Music, Byron E. Helman; Decoration, L. N. Weber; Log-Cabin, Bolivar Butts; Reception and Entertainment, Founder's Day, William Edwards; Public Observances, Founder's Day, L. E. Holden; Parade, Founder's Day and Western Reserve Day, J. J. Sullivan; Pageant, Founder’s Day, George W. Kinney; Reception and Ball, Founder’s Day, Mrs. William Edwards; New England Dinner, New England Day, N. B. Sherwin; Ohio Editors, New England Day, Ralph D. Williams; Bicycle Parade, J. E. Cheesman; Public Observances, Wesrtern Reserve and Early Settlers’ Day, Henry W. S. Wood; Yacht Regatta, George H. Worthington; Centennial Floral Exhibition, E. H. Cushman; Knights of Pythias Encampment, James Dunn; Historical Conference, Section of Education, Charles F. Thwing; Section of Philanthropy, J. W. Walton; Section of Religion, J. G. W. Cowles; Speakers and Exercises, Perry’s Victory Day, William J. Gleason; Reception and Entertainment, Perry’s Victory Day, F. H. Morris.
The officers and executive committee of the Woman’s Department, Centennial Commission, were as follows:
President, Mrs. Mary B. Ingham.
Executive Committee: Mrs. Elroy M. Avery, chairman; Mrs. Charles W. Chase, Mrs. T. K. Dissette, Mrs. H. A. Griffin, Mrs. M. A. Hanna, Mrs. P. M. Hitchcock, Mrs. O J. Hodge, Mrs. John Huntington, Mrs. F. A. Kendall, Mrs. W. B. Neff, Mrs. N. B. Prentice, Mrs. W. G. Rose, Mrs. L. A. Russell, Mrs. M. B. Schwab, Mrs. Charles H. Weed, Mrs. A. J. Williams.
The formal opening of these prolonged and varied re-
joicings, in which patriotic Cleveland was to testify of the many good things scattered along its first hundred years of lusty life, was fittingly found in the uplifting of many voices in that grand and appropriate chorus from Elijah, "Thanks be to God!" In this noble strain the reverent gratitude of the people found expression. Already the chimes of Trinity had rung out selections from national and sacred airs; already had the churches of the city, during the morning hours of this Sabbath day, set the seal of sermon, and song, and prayer, in approval of the celebration of the Centennial year.
A great concourse of people had gathered in the Central Armory, on the afternoon of Sunday, July 19th. The hall was fittingly decorated, the starry flag, of course, being displayed in every quarter. All classes of citizens
were represented, and on the platform sat members of the Centennial Commission and committees, leading clergymen of various denominations, officers of the city government and Chamber of Commerce, and others who had aided the work in various ways. A large number of local organizations, military and fraternal, were also in attendance, in uniform.
The order of exercises was opened by J. G. W. Cowles, chairman of the Committee on Section of Religion, who asked the Cleveland Vocal Society to render the great hymn of thanksgiving, spoken of above. Prayer was then offered by the Right Rev. Bishop William A. Leonard, and at the conclusion, the entire audience, with heads bowed in reverence, accompanied him in the Lord’s Prayer.
Mr. Cowles, as chairman of the section having this gathering in charge, then delivered a thoughtful and impressive address, in which he outlined the causes which, set at work one hundred years ago, had produced such wonderful effects. In opening, he struck the keynote of the occasion when he said: "In this historic hour, closing the century, we are gathered here, without distinction of race, or sect, or creed, to review the records and recall the memories of the first one hundred years of our city’s life. What can be more appropriate than that this first Centennial observance should be upon the Sabbath day? And, from what higher summit, or with what clearer and larger outlook, can we survey this period, than from the standpoint of religion?" In conclusion, he said: "What I have said is introductory, and suggestive only. It is for those who follow to exhibit, in various colors and relations, the religions life and progress of this city. In the great world-order, the Jew stands first, the Catholic next, and the Protestant last. But in our local history, the Protestant was the pioneer, followed, after thirty-nine years, by the Catholic, and, after forty-three years, by the Jewish church. The contributions of each one of these factors and faiths have been of incalculable value to this
community and to mankind. Let each one speak for his faith, from his separate point of view, and speak well, for each faith deserves to be well spoken of."
In response to this broad and noble-minded invitation, addresses were delivered by Rev. Levi Gilbert, representing the Protestant churches; Mgr. T. P. Thorpe, the Catholic church, and Rabbit Moses J. Gries, the Jewish church. Prayer was offered by Rev. Herman J. Ruetenik, and these opening exercises came to a close by the entire assembly joining in the hymn, "Nearer, my God, to Thee!"
During the same afternoon, the various German Lutheran congregations of the city gathered in mass meeting in Music Hall, in like observance of the opening of Cleveland’s Centennial. The exercises were conducted almost entirely in German. The chair was occupied by Rev. Paul Schwan. The pastors of nearly all the congregations represented, were present on the platform. The only decorations were the American flag, and in front of the stage was a banner bearing these words: "Praise God from Whom all Blessings Flow." Prayers, speeches, and songs were the means employed by the patriotic Germans to show that they also claimed a part in the past of Cleveland, and were ready to do honor to the present. Addresses were delivered by Rev. H. Weseloh, Rev. W. H. Lothmann, of Akron, and the Rev. John Wapel, of Zanesville.
In the evening, there were further Centennial services in the churches, and yet another mass meeting, of German Protestant congregations, in Central Armory. Rev. F. Friedrich presided. The exercises were opened by a hymn and prayer, after which Mayor McKisson was introduced and made a brief address, the beginning of which was as follows: "This day has marked the opening of our long anticipated Centennial celebration. After many months of waiting and planning, a period of rejoicing, over the completion of one hundred years of the city’s history, has arrived. This mass meeting is a mark of the
strength of our German citizenship, and an earnest of your lively interest in the welfare and prosperity of our municipality."
Director-General Day was then introduced, and in a brief but stirring address paid a fitting tribute to the German character and German patriotism. In conclusion, he said: "May the churches which you represent ever be the fountains of the purest religion, the broadest culture, and the highest patriotism. In the name of the Centennial Commission, I greet you. God save the Fatherland! God save America!"
This conclusion touched a responsive chord, and the applause lasted for several moments. The entire audience then arose and joined in singing "America."
An address in German was delivered by Rev. J. H. C. Roentgen, whose theme was the immigration of Germans into Cleveland, and its results. Rev. G. Heinmiller than spoke on "A History of the German Churches of Cleveland." He gave a comprehensive review of the struggles of the early German Church in this city, and in Ohio. A hymn, followed by prayer, brought the evening’s exercises to a close.
Monday, July 20th, witnessed the opening of the encampment of the Ohio National Guard, and United States Regulars, which had been established on the farm of J. P. Perkins, to the west of the city, and appropriately named "Camp Moses Cleaveland." At three o’clock in the afternoon, Hon. Asa S. Bushnell, governor of Ohio, arrived at the camp grounds, accompanied by members of his staff, Robert E. McKisson, mayor of Cleveland; J. G. W. Cowles, president of the Chamber of Commerce, and other distinguished gentlemen. The day had been one of rain and clouds, but at that hour a truce was called, and a short period of sunshine ensued.
The troops formed a hollow square about the Governor’s party, who were standing by the flagstaff in the center of the camp. L. E. Holden, representing the Centennial Commission, then introduced Mayor McKisson, who after
An eloquent speech, in turn introduced the Governor, in these words: "I now take pleasure in presenting, on behalf of the Centennial Commission, to Governor Bushnell, a commander-in-chief, this end-of-the-century encampment, to be known as Camp Moses Cleaveland."
The Governor said: "Mr. Chairman and Mayor McKisson, officers and men of the Ohio National Guard, and officers and men of the Regular Army:
At this moment the halyard was pulled, and the Star Spangled Banner shook out, in all its glory, under the now darkening skies while the battery down below boomed its salute of twenty-one guns, in unison with the mightier artillery, which the elements had set rolling overhead.
The speech of acceptance of the camp, which followed, was brief, earnest, and to the point. Addressing the mayor, the Governor said: "I desire to thank you, and through you, the people of your magnificent city, for the generous gift of this camp, and I hereby accept it for the State, and dedicate it for the uses for which you present it, and christen it ‘Camp Moses Cleaveland,’ in honor of the founder of your beautiful city." It was in a downpour of heavy rain that these words of dedication were uttered, and because of this the exercises came to an end.
Under the immediate advice and direction of those who had been, in their earlier days, sheltered in structures of that character, a log-cabin, fashioned upon the real substantial lines of pioneer architecture, had been constructed by the Centennial managers, on the northeast quarter of the Public Square, and July 21st had been set aside for it dedication.
The human eye, and the human mind, can quite readily grasp any lesson taught by contrasts. In no better or more telling way could the advance of this completed century be shown than by the location of this facsimile of
the pioneer dwelling under the very shadows of the great structures surrounding it. The mind was carried back to the day when General Cleaveland and his aids awoke the echoes of the Cuyahoga Valley with the sturdy strokes that created that first cabin, in which they found a home and headquarters during the summer of 1796; or that earlier "Castle Stow." Down on the Conneaut River, that excited the amused wonder of even the children of the forest.
Many of the beloved mothers and fathers of Cleveland gathered within this rude structure, to assist in its dedication. At 2 p. m., Chairman Bolivar Butts, of the Committee on Reception, introduced Richard C. Parsons, chairman of the day. Colonel Parsons thanked Mr. Butts or the honor conferred, and then introduced the Rev. Lathrop Cooley, who asked the divine blessing upon the occasion.
The Arion Quartet sang "My Country! ‘tis of thee," after which Mr. Parsons made a brief but eloquent address, in which he paid a fitting tribute to the log-cabin as the birthplace and home of some of our greatest men. Among other things, he said: "We come this day, not to dedicate the log-cabin, or inaugurate its use in Ohio. We come to honor and pay to it our most sincere homage of admiration and regard. We see in it the veritable symbol of our earliest civilization, in this country, and settlement in Ohio. The log-cabin is the cradle of the old statesmen of Ohio, the nursery of her stalwart sons and daughters. It has long been dedicated to the service of man and the house of God."
Speeches were than made by Mayor McKisson, James Lawrence, and W. S. Kerruish. Gen. J. J. Elwell was called upon, and in the course of his brief remarks made this telling comparison: "From this cabin to the building of the Society for Savings [just across the street] is an object-lesson of what has been done in Cleveland, more impressive and instructive than anything I can say. Look at them as they stand! The log-cabin, with no money—
not a cent. The bank, with twenty or thirty millions, belonging to the citizens of Cleveland and the county. From Poverty to wealth, is the story they tell."
George F. Marshall, a pioneer of Cleveland, whose pen and voice have given us so many bright and humorous accounts of the early days, next made one of his characteristic speeches. He spoke feelingly of those who had worked so well to lay the foundations of our city and State so broad and deep. "These men have long since passed away," said he, "and with each name, with scarce an exception, was a woman who shared the joys and sorrows of those who helped to make the far-famed Western Reserve one of the proudest districts of modern times. Since those pioneers have passed away, the generations
which followed them would like to be rated as ‘pioneers,’ but they have encountered none of that wrestling with nature which the men were engaged in eighty of ninety years ago. Few who are here to-day may be regarded as pioneers. We are all too young to claim such honor. The first cabins were of the earth earthy; the last ones try to reach the sky."
This brought the formal exercises to an end. The women of the Early Settlers’ Association held a reception from 10 am. M. to 5 p. m., and entertained many visitors. Great interest was shown in the many relics and heirlooms with which the cabin was stocked. All through the summer of celebration, this log-cabin was one of the things which the visitor would make sure to see.
The evening of "Log-Cabin Day," as it might well have been called, witnessed the Centennial concert arranged for that occasion. It was held in the Central Armory. One feature of especial attraction was the grand historical musical spectacle, entitled "Battles of our Nation." It covered the military history of our country for a hundred years. The music was furnished by Conterno’s Ninth Regiment Band, of New York City. The choruses were sung by the Cleveland Vocal Society, and the military maneuvers were executed by a company of the local organizations.
Founder’s Day was, indeed, celebrated in a manner which showed that Cleveland was awake to the requirements of the occasion. When the minute-hand marked the hour of twelve, and Wednesday, July 22, 1896, stood upon the threshold of recorded time, the guns of the Light Artillery boomed forth their thunders, as a sign that the first hundred years of Cleveland’s existence had been completed. Sunrise heard a national salute, and although the day gave little promise of good weather, the people universally made holiday.
The chief event of the summer was set for 9.30 a. m. of this anniversary day. Central Armory was again thrown open to a great throng. Exercises had been ar-
ranged for a joint mass meeting, in which Old Connecticut and New Connecticut should together celebrate the anniversary of an event of importance in the annals of both. The chief magistrates of both Connecticut and Ohio were present, accompanied by other honored sons of the two States.
It was near the stroke of ten, when H. R. Hatch, of the Centennial Commission, came upon the stage, accompanied by Joseph R. Hawley, United States Senator from Connecticut, the principal orator of the day. Then came Mayor McKisson, Director-General Day, and James H. Hoyt, the chairman of the day; Asa S. Bushnell, governor of Ohio, and O. Vincent Coffin, governor of Connecticut; William McKinley, ex-governor of Ohio, and Republican nominee for President of the United States; John Sherman, United States Senator from Ohio; Richard C. Parsons, ex-Governor Merriam, of Minnesota, and other gentlemen who had been invited to seats of honor upon the platform.
When the applause which greeted these distinguished gentlemen had subsided, Mayor McKisson, president of the Centennial Commission, called the gathering to order, and in a short and appropriate speech welcomed those who were present as the guests of Cleveland upon this occasion: "To formally open this patriotic celebration," said he, "and welcome to our beautiful city our distinguished guests, is a great honor. I speak the pride of our citizens when I greet you to-day, and extend to you our hospitality and our fraternal hand of fellowship. To all of our guests, whether from the East or the West, from far or near, we dedicate this day, our city, and all it has or is."
James H. Hoyt was introduced as chairman of the day. As a preface to his remarks, he read the following message from the President of the United States, which was received with great applause:
Buzzard’s Bay, July 22, 1896.
"Wilson M. Day, Director-General: I congratulate the City of Cleveland upon the close of her first century, with the wish that it is but the beginning of her greatness nd prosperity.
Mr. Hoyt’s speech was eloquent, and breathed a spirit of appreciation of the labors performed by the founders of Cleveland, and of the responsibilities of the present in connection with the fruits of the future. Said he: "When Moses Cleaveland and his companions made their memorable landing, they could not have realized, even in small measure, what that landing meant. The silent forests did not prophesy, and the placid river gave no sign. Their present was perilous, and their future was uncertain. Yet, a short century after, and a city with a population of more than a third of a million; a city whose commerce reaches distant climes, and whose vessels plow distant waters; a city of wealth, of refinement, of enterprise, stands now where its sturdy pioneers then stood. . . They labored for others, and not for themselves. Theirs was the toil and suffering, and ours is the goodly heritage. Theirs was the privation and danger, and ours is the comfort and peace. They planted, that we might reap. The pioneers sacrificed much for us. Let us, in turn, sacrifice something for those who shall come after us. On this Founder’s Day, let us pledge ourselves anew to guard the trusts they have committed to our keeping."
The divine blessing upon the occasion was then invoked by the Rev. Charles S. Mills. Senator Hawley was introduced, and delivered the main address of the day. His oration was largely historical in character, dealing with the settlement of New Connecticut, and making special extended mention of the descendants of Connecticut, who had made their mark in connection with the history of Ohio. He followed General Cleaveland and his party into the wilderness, and summarized their labors and the results that have come therefrom. He then passed to a discussion of the questions that are demanding consideration and solution in the present, and in an able and thoughtful manner suggested the course of patriotism in connection therewith.
John J. Piatt, the poet, then read the Centennial ode,
which the Commission had invited him to prepare for the occasion. It was a song of praise—
The next speaker was O. Vincent Coffin, governor of Connecticut, who had come for the purpose of bearing the greetings of the parent commonwealth to this lusty offspring in the West. He paid a just tribute to the State of which he was the official head, and fittingly said: "It is desired that I suggest some thoughts, here in New Connecticut, about the little State down by the sea, which I have the honor in part to represent, and which may well be designated as mother of states. In the early days, it has been claimed Connecticut held by grant a wide section, extending westerly to the ocean. Portions of this section now form parts of at least thirteen different States. But Connecticut gave up nearly all this territory, reserving here in Ohio the large tract known as the Western Reserve. Here, where we are met, her people prepared the ground for a great city, which is now set as the most beautiful of gems in the crown of your queenly commonwealth. Our pride in our own State mounts rapidly as we contemplate her splendid daughter, and remember what glory of motherhood is hers."
It was at the conclusion of Governor Coffin’s speech that Chairman Hoyt suspended the formal order of exercises, to permit J. G. W. Cowles to make announcement of the magnificent additions to Cleveland’s park system, which had come through he generosity of John D. Rockefeller. The details of that gift have been related in a previous chapter. It is only necessary to say here that all the negotiations and other steps that led to this gift,
had been conducted with such secrecy that no inkling had come to the people until this moment of the good fortune that was to be a part of Founder’s Day. The burst of applause with which the announcement was received, was significant evidence of te appreciative gratitude of the people.
At the conclusion of Mr. Cowles’s address, L. E. Holden offered a resolution of thanks and acceptance, coupled with a request that Mr. Rockefeller permit the new park to bear his name. The people arose, as one, in adoption of the resolution.
The official programme was then resumed. Asa S. Bushnell, governor of Ohio, was introduced, and, in behalf of the State, welcomed the Governor of Connecticut and the other distinguished guest. "To the entire State, from this Forest City on the lake," said he, "this Clyde of the United States, to the beautiful Queen City on the southern borders of the State, and from old Marietta, where an Ohio community was established by forty-eight Connecticut men, to Conneaut, where Moses Cleaveland first landed, the State is yours. In the name of all the people of Ohio, I extend you a most cordial welcome."
At the conclusion of this address, William McKinley was introduced, and was received with long and enthusiastic applause. The esteem in which he was held as a neighbor and friend, the admiration for his career as a soldier and a statesman, and the fact that he was then a candidate for President of the United States, served to make him the central figure of the occasion, and caused the people to be demonstrative in their welcome. When quiet had been restored, Major McKinley delivered a brief but thoughtful speech, extolling the character of the pioneer, and pointing out his fortitude, his love of liberty, and the many sterling qualities that made him what he was. He spoke of Cleveland and her achievements in a strain of high appreciation. "To-day the present generation pays its homage to Cleveland’s founders," said he, "and offers a generous and unqualified testimonial to
Their wisdom and work. The statistics of the population of Cleveland, her growth, production, and wealth, do not, and cannot, tell the story of her greatness. We have been listening to the interesting and eloquent words of historian, poet, and orator, graphically describing her rise from obscurity to prominence. They have woven into a perfect narrative the truthful, yet established, record of her advancement, from an unknown frontier settlement, in the western wilderness, to the proud rank of eleventh city in the greatest country—America—the grandest country in the world. We have heard, with just pride, how marvelous has been her progress; that among the greatest cities of the earth, but sixty-two now outrank Cleveland in population. Her life is as one century to twenty, with some of that number. Yet her civilization is as far advanced as the proudest metropolis in the world. In point of government, education, morals, business thrift, and enterprise, Cleveland may well claim recognition with the foremost, and is fairly entitled to the warmest congratulations and highest eulogy on this her centenary day. Nor will any envy her people a season of self-congratulation and rejoicing. You inaugurate, to-day, a Centennial celebration inb honor of your illustrious past, and its beginning is, with singular appropriateness, called Founder’s Day. We have hear, with interest, the enumeration of the commercial importance of this city, a port on a chain of lakes, whose tonnage and commerce surpasses that on any other sea or ocean on the globe. We realize the excellence and superiority of the great railroad systems which touch the center of this city. We marvel at the volume and variety of your numerous manufactories, and see about us, on every hand, the pleasant evidences of your comfort and culture; not only in the hospitable homes, but in your churches, schools, charities, factories, business houses; your various streets and viaducts, public parks, statues and monuments—indeed, in your conveniences, adornments and improvements of every sort, we behold all the advantages and blessings
of the model modern city, worthy to be both the pride of a great city and a still greater nation!"
Hon. John Sherman, the senior senator from Ohio—himself not only a son of Ohio, but a descendant from Connecticut parentage—followed Major McKinley. The applause which he received was not merely a tribute to a tried and true statesman, but also a recognition of the personal respect in which he was held by the people he had represented for so many years. H spoke of Cleveland as a city of workshops and factories. "We must never lose sight of the fact," he continued, "that it is the workingmen who develop the resources and beautify the streets and avenues of a great city. Men, not only men who work daily with their hands, but those who work in
Their early lives, and at last make gifts to the community of magnificent public parkways, may be included in this category."
Miles Preston, the mayor of Hartford, Conn., was then introduced, but contented himself with briefly extending the greeting of the people of his city to those of the
City of Cleveland. A benediction was pronounced by the Rev. Samuel P. Sprecher, and the formal exercises of Founder’s Day came to an end. During these, selections had been sung by the Cleveland Vocal Society, the audience joining their voices in those of a patriotic character.
In the afternoon, came the parade of military and uniformed civic organizations. It was witnessed by an immense concourse of people, and was in itself, perhaps, the greatest military and civic display seen by Cleveland in her century of existence. A reviewing stand, on Superior street, in front of the City Hall, with a capacity of nearly five hundred, was filled with prominent citizens and distinguished guests, among whom where Major McKinley, Governors Coffin, Bushnell, and Merriam and Senators Sherman and Hawley. These gentlemen, with the members of the Centennial Commission, municipal officers, and officers of the Chamber of Commerce, rode in carriages in the van of the procession, until the stand was reached, when they alighted and reviewed the long line as it passed before them.
The forenoon had been discouraging, with a drizzle of rain that promised no cessation, but just as the parade was forming, the clouds parted, and the sun came forth. The city had made gala day, and the decorations in sight in all directions were outward symbols of that fact.
The right of the procession was on Lake street, near Water street, and the various divisions formed on the intersecting streets, as far east as Erie street and Payne avenue. The forward movement occurred a few minutes before three o’clock. The line of march was from Lake street to Water street, to Superior street, to the east side of the Public Square, to Euclid avenue, to Brownell
street, to Prospect street, to Kennard street, to Euclid avenue, to Erie street, to Superior street, where it passed in review, and dismissed after passing under the Centennial Arch.
Col. J. J. Sullivan, chief marshal, rode at the head of the line, accompanied by a mounted staff. The Ninth New York Regiment Band, and Troop A, Ohio National Guard, came next, as an escort to the carriages containing the Centennial officials and the guests. It is not possible, in the space here permitted, to attempt an enumeration of the scores and scores of organizations, military and civic, that made up this great procession. Among them were the local military of Cleveland, regiments of the Ohio National Guard, bodies of the United States Regu-
Lars, Knights of St. John,, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Veteran Volunteer Fire Department, Cleveland Fire Department, Cleveland Letter Carriers’ Association, Grand Army of the Republic, etc., etc. As was said of this parade by a chronicler286 in the local press, "There were more military organizations in the column than ever trod the streets of Cleveland at one time, on a gala occasion. There was an army of armed men, representing all branches of land service, of sufficient size to repulse an enormous force, if called into active duty. There were many representative men in line,--men who have been the bone and sinew of Cleveland, and who have been responsible for the wonderful progress which all Cleveland turned out to celebrate. There were men of national fame; those who have been identified with this nation’s prosperity for a score of years or more. There were representatives of the State that gave the first settlers to the Western Reserve, and which have ever shown a sort of paternalism for Northern Ohio. It was, perhaps, the most representative parade that was ever seen in Cleveland."
At 5.30 p. m., the guns again boomed forth the national salute. Long before darkness fell, great multitudes filled the streets, not only in the lower portions of the city, but also all along the line of march of the historical pageant that was to be the main feature of the evening.
The Centennial Arch, that had been erected on the Public Square, with the log-cabin on the one hand, and the Soldiers’ Monument on the other, was ready to burst into a blaze of light, when the chief magistrate of the nation should give the signal, in his far-away home. This imposing structure had been planned with due care to architecture, and presented a pleasing attraction to the eye, even before the lights were made a part of its adornment.
At 8.15, President Cleveland touched the electric button, in his home at Buzzard’s Bay, and the arch burst into a
flame of light, amid the cheers of the watching thousands.
All eyes were then turned in the direction of the historical pageant, "The Passing of the Century," which had been arranged with such expense and care. The line of march was from the corner of Seneca and Superior streets to Erie street, to Euclid avenue, to Kennard street, to Prospect street, to Case avenue, to Central avenue, to Brownlee street, to Prospect street, to Bolivar street, to the Grays’ Armory.
Mounted police headed the line, followed by George W. Kinney, grand master of ceremonies, and staff, aides-de-camp, trumpeters, heralds, bands, and then the floats—twenty-four in all. These were, in the order of march here named, "Progress," "Cleveland of 1796," "Sunday," "Monday," "Tuesday," "Wednesday," "Thursday," "Friday," "Saturday," "January," "February," "March," "April," "May," "June," "July, " "August," ":September" "October," "November," "December," "The Year," "Passing of the Century," "Cleveland of 1896."
The floats symbolical of the days and months were, in subject, taken largely from mythology, and showed a thorough knowledge of the subject, and artistic execution. The :"Passing of the Century" showed Father Time on the back of a huge bird. In "Cleveland in 1796," an Indian tent was seen near the banks of the Cuyahoga River, while in front of it Moses Cleaveland was shown in the act of running the first line of the city. Other pioneers, with axe and spade, were preparing for the first settlement. "Cleveland in 1896," by appropriate symbols, represented commerce, art, and all the industries, while at the rear stood a large dome, surmounted by an eagle.
The exercises of this memorable Founder’s Day ended with a grand Centennial reception and ball287 at the Grays’
Armory, which was one of the most successful ever witnessed in Cleveland.
The strains of the music in the Armory had hardly died away before the patriotic sons and daughters of Connecticut, of Rhode Island, of Massachusetts, were engaged in preparations for New England Day, as this 23rd of July had been officially designated.
The chief event was the New England dinner, spread on the campus of Adelbert College, and given under the auspices of the New England Society of Cleveland and the Western Reserve. Two large tents had been spread, and beneath them, at 12.30 p. m., gathered some five hundred guests, among whom were Senator Hawley, Senator Sherman, Major McKinley, Governor Bushnell, and many of the Ohio editors, who were the city’s guests on that day. The food was placed upon long tables, each guest serving his neighbor and himself. From the bean porridge to the Vermont turkey, it was supposed to represent the fare of New England in the early days. Dinner over, N. B. Sherwin, president of the New England Society, called the assemblage to order, and introduced Senator Hawley as the first speaker. He responded in a brief address, the central thought of which was that the Puritan had an idea that God had put him into the world to do a certain work, and that idea made him an earnest, persevering man, who accomplished much in his pursuit of an ideal State that would stand for religion and free government.
Brief speeches were also made by Senator Sherman, Governor Bushnell, Major McKinley, A. Kennedy Child, of the Hartford (Conn.) Board of Aldermen, and John T. Mack, president of the Association of Ohio Dailies. All these addresses were brief, to the point, and filled with tributes to New England, and this newer New England of the West.
The programe arranged for the entertainment of the Ohio editors was fully carried out. There was an early meeting at the Hollenden Hotel, a trip on the lake in the steamer "City of Buffalo," a trolley ride over the prin-
cipal lines, the dinner under the tents on Adelbert campus, a tally-ho ride through Wade and Gordon parks, and a lunch and reception at the Artemus Ward Club.
The Euclid Avenue Opera House was filled, in the evening, by a brilliant audience assembled to witness the first presentation of the Centennial opera, "From Moses to McKisson," by the Gatling Gun Battery. The opera was voted a great success, both in its subject-matter and in the manner in which it was presented.
The next day that was formally given over to Centennial holiday-making was Monday, July 27th, when the great bicycle parade occurred. It was an event that would have been difficult to describe to the Clevelanders of a hundred years ago. No witness of these brilliant and rapidly-moving columns that wheeled along the streets of the city could fail to ponder the fact that this was a sight possible only in the closing days of the nineteenth century—a wonderful triumph of modern mechanical skill.
There were nine divisions in all. The line formed in Wade Park, at 2 p. m., and moved over the following streets and avenues: Euclid, Bolton, East Prospect, Sibley, Kennard, Euclid, the Public Square, Superior, Erie, Chestnut, Dodge, Euclid to the east of Willson, and there disbanded.
"Not since the Centennial ceremonies began," says one local chronicler,288 "has there been such a turn-out of people as filled the eight miles of parade route in Cleveland yesterday. The military had their thousands, but the wheelmen had their tens of thousands of admirers." The story of this parade cannot be better told than in the graphic language of this witness: "What unique parade it was! No such kaleidoscope of color has filled Cleveland’s streets in many a day. The nations of the earth were represented. Gaily decorated yachts, with colors flying from every mast and stay, glided down the open stream, their sails filling with gentle breezes that set
their flags fluttering. Butterflies of gaudy hue skimmed silently over the pavement. Frogs with goggle eyes, Indians in war paint, Arabs in scarlet fezes, white troops of sweet girl graduates, Romeos in doublets and trunks, Topsys and Sambos, almond-eyed Japs, Uncle Sams of all ages, and Goddesses of Library without number, flitted past, until the spectators grew dizzy watching the constantly revolving wheels."
The line was headed by a platoon of police on wheels, and just behind came Grand Marshal Carlos M. Stone, and J. E. Cheesman, chief of staff. A reviewing stand on Superior street was occupied by Major McKinley, Director-General Day, Adjutant-General H. A. Axline, and other prominent gentlemen.
the exercises of Woman’s Day, Tuesday, July 28th, furnished convincing evidence that the women of Cleveland, and of the Western Reserve, had most nobly and ably fulfilled the trust committed to their hands. At 8.30 a. m., a committee of ladies rode to the Public Square and wreathed the bronze Moses Cleaveland with flowers.
At 9 a. m., the formal exercises in Central Armory commenced, with Mrs. Mary B. Ingham, president of the Woman’s Department of the Centennial Commission, presiding. Only the briefest mention of the good and brilliant things that were there provided is possible here. Rev. S. P. Sprecher offered prayer, after which Wilson M. Day, director-general, made the opening address. "Through good and evil report," said he, "the women have stood by this Centennial. The Centennial Commission owes an inextinguishable debt of gratitude to the women of Cleveland for their patriotic and self-sacrificing efforts in behalf of this celebration. Prompt to answer to the call for assistance, ready in suggestion and execution, undismayed by obstacles often most disheartening, intelligent and comprehensive in planning, loyal to every request of the Commission, yet absolutely independent of any assistance, they have done so well that we could not wish it better."
Mrs. James A. Garfield, honorary chairman of the department, presented Mrs. Ingham as president of the day. Among the exercises that occurred, from that time until adjournment, at 4.15 p. m., the following must be mentioned: The department of philanthropy was considered for an hour, under the leadership of Mr. Dan P. Eells. Mrs. F. A. Arter read a paper on the Young Women’s Christian Association; other papers on other lines of benevolent work were read by Mr. L. A. Russell, Mrs. M. B. Schwab, Mrs. E. J. Blandin, Mrs. Ellen J. Phinney, and Mrs. Sarah M. Perkins. Miss Linda T. Guilford presided during the hour devoted to household economics, and an address on "A Stronger Home" was made by Mrs. Helen Campbell.
From 12 m. to 1.30 p.m., a reception was held and luncheon served to the township historians, and other visitors. The first hour of the afternoon was given to "Woman’s Clubs," Mrs. Elroy M. Avery presiding. A pleasing address of congratulation and commendation was made by Mayor Robert E. McKisson. J. G. W. Cowles, president of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, also delivered a brief address. Mrs. Benjamin F. Taylor read an able paper on "Women’s Clubs." Miss Hannah Foster, author of the Centennial Ode of the woman’s section, was next introduced, and read an extended poem of rare force and power, the key-note of which was found in these opening lines:
The second hour of the afternoon was given up to the subject of education, Mrs. Lydia Hoyt Farmer presiding. A paper on "Domestic Effects of the Higher Education of Women" was read by Mrs. May Wright Sewall. Mrs. Caroline Baldwin Babcock presided during the final hour, which was devoted to pioneer topics. Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton spoke on "Our Ancestors, the Heroes and Heroines of the Western Reserve;" Mrs. R. H. Wright on "Are we worthy of our Ancestors?" and Mrs. Kate Brownlee Sherwood on "Looking Forward."
After a few remarks by the venerable Truman P. Handy, and the offering of the Lord’s Prayer by the entire audience, the afternoon exercises came to an end. From 5,30 to 6.30 p. m., there was a reception in the Grays’ Armory. Mrs. M. A. Hanna, chairman of the reception committee, was assisted in receiving by Governor and Mrs. Bushnell, Major and Mrs. McKinley, and other prominent ladies and gentlemen. The reception was followed by a banquet, spread in the great drill room, where thirty-two tables, exquisitely appointed an richly laden, were set for the accommodation of six hundred guests.
At 7.00 p. m., when the guests were seated, Mr. W. A. Ingham brought down the gavel, and introduced Mrs. W. G. Rose, chairman of the banquet committee, who welcomed the company in an eloquent address. Mrs. Sarah E. Bierce, chairman of toe Woman’s Day Committee, and toast-mistress of the evening, in a charmingly-worded address, assumed her duties. Rev. H. M. Ladd said grace, and, to the music of the Schubert Mandolin Club, the menu was discussed. When this portion of the programme had been completed, Mayor McKisson welcomed the guests, in behalf of the city, and congratulated the women of the Western Reserve upon the great work they had accomplished. Governor Bushnell spoke in response to the toast, "The State;" Mrs. T. K. Dissette spoke on "Auld Lang Syne;" Mrs. May Wright Sewall, on "The Present Situation;" Mrs.
N. Coe Stewart, on "The Wheel of the Past: the Wheel of the Present;" Mrs. Annette Phelps Lincoln, on "Ohio Federation of Woman’s Clubs;" Rabbi Moses J. Gries, on "Home;" Mrs. Helen Campbell, on "Prisoners of Poverty: Prisoners of Hope;" Mrs. J. C. Croly (Jennie June), on "The Future Citizens;" and Mr. W. F. Carr, on "The Reserve Force of the Western Reserve—the Woman." A few happy remarks on "Thos Royal Good Fellows, the Men," were then made by Mr. A. H. Tuttle, after which Mrs. Elroy M. Avery arose and said: "Women began the day by hanging on the outstretched arm of Moses Cleavelend a wreath of flowers, in token of honor and respect. He was a man. We end the day by presenting to the representative of the Centennial Commission a basket of flowers, as a token of honor and respect to the men of Cleveland," With this, Mrs. Avery handed to Director-Genera Day a basket of magnificent roses. This ended the exercises of the evening.
Wednesday, July 29th, was set aside as Early Settlers’ Day, and was mainly devoted to the exercises conducted by the Early Settlers’ Association of Cuyahoga County. At 9.30 a. m., the members of this great body, that has done so much for the preservation of historical information concerning this portion of the West, gathered in Army and Navy Hall, for their annual meeting. The exercises opened with prayer, by Rev. Lathrop Cooley, chaplain of the Association, followed by a song by the Arion Quartet. Hon. A. J. Williams, chairman of the executive committee, submitted his annual report. He read also the repost that had been prepared by Solon Burgess, the treasurer. On motion of General James Barnett, the officers who had served during the past year wee re-elected, as follows: President, Richard C. Parsons; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. Josiah A. Harris, George F. Marshall; Secretary, Henry C. Hawkins; Treasurer, Solon Burgess; Chaplain, Rev. Lathrop Cooley; Marshal, Hiram M. Addison. The annual address of President Parsons was then listened to. He briefly sketched the history of
Ohio, and the Western Reserve, and paid an eloquent tribute to the character of the men by whom they were peopled. When he had concluded, Hon. John C. Covert was introduced, as the author of that resolution, back in 1893, that was the first public, official suggestion of this Centennial celebration of 1896.
Mr. Covert289 related many interesting events connected with the foundation and settlement of Cleveland, and, in conclusion, paid a warm tribute to those who came into the wilderness, to build a commonwealth, and make their homes. "These early settlers were, as a rule," said he, "men of sturdy patriotism, and broad intelligence. Their principles, like some of their houses, survive them. When all material objects associated with them shall have passed away, their principles will still live, and their names and examples be cherished during centuries yet to come."
Remarks were also made by Truman P. Handy, General J. J. Elwell, and S. D. Dodge. The members of the association were invited then to a dinner, in an upper hall. At 2:00 p. m., they reassembled, and marched as a body to the log-cabin. A photograph was taken of the group, in front of that famous structure. The afternoon was spent in social converse, and in listening to the old-time
music which "Father" H. M. Addison evoked from his ancient violin.
On the succeeding day, Thursday, July 30th, came the celebration of Western Reserve Day, dedicated to the people of that historic tract, of which Cleveland is the metropolis. It was ushered in, at 5.30 a. m., by a national salute. It had been intended to hold public exercises during the forenoon, in the Central Armory, but Senators John Sherman and Calvin S. Brice, who had been advertised as the chief orators, discovered, at the last moment, that they were unable to come, and accordingly it was abandoned. A military and pioneer parade had been arranged for at 2.30 p. m., and that was carried out, in a successful manner. The progress of a century was shown by floats, and otherwise. Old-time agricultural implements, the spinning-wheel and hand-loom, the "dug-out," the yokes of oxen, the stage-coach of by-gone days, the mail-carrier, and other reminders of pioneer times, were seen in the parade, as it passed the reviewing stand, in front of the City Hall. In the military part of the parade, came a regiment of United States regulars, a troop of regular cavalry, a battery of United States artillery, regiments of the Ohio National Guard, Cleveland companies, and the veteran firemen. The procession was reviewed by Governor Bushnell, as commander-in-chief of the troops.
The week beginning with Monday, August 10th, was given over to the Centennial Yacht Regatta, under the auspices of the Centennial Commission, and of the Cleveland Yacht Club. Several days of excited racing, and much in the line of social pleasure, tell in a few words the story of the week. August 18th, 19th, and 20th, were devoted to the Centennial Floral Exhibition, given under the auspices of the Centennial Commission, the Cleveland Florists’ Club, and the Society of American Florists. On the 18th, the twelfth annual convention of the National Association was held in Army and Navy Hall. Mayor McKisson made a speech of welcome to the visitors.
The floral exhibits were displayed in Central Armory. The three days devoted to these beautiful displays, and to the reception and entertainment of the exhibitors, were not among the least attractive features of the Centennial summer.
A week and more, extending from August 22nd to August 29th, was set aside for the Grand Encampment and Supreme Lodge of the Knights of Pythias. A camp had been prepared, on "Payne Meadows," to which the name of Camp Perry-Payne had been given. To this came thousands of knights, from all parts of the country, and were welcomed by representatives of the Centennial Commission, and the members of the order, in Cleveland. A band concert on the opening evening; divine services on the Sabbath, the dedication of the camp; boat riding on the lake; visits to the public parks, and other places of interest; parades; an excursion to Put-in-Bay; and prize drills, were only a few of the events arranged for the pleasure of the visitors. The parade of the uniform rank, and subordinate lodges, on the 25th, was generally described as the greatest, and most imposing, in the history of the order.
The first of the Historical Conferences, which were among the closing events of the celebration, was held, on September 7th and 8th, in Association Hall. These two days were devoted to the section of education, and the meetings were presided over by President Charles F. Thwing, of Western Reserve University. Director-General Day opened the exercises, at 3.00 p. m., by a short speech, at the conclusion of which he introduced Dr. Thwing. Prayer was offered by Rev. S. P. Sprecher. An entertaining paper on "Some Early Schools and Teachers of Cleveland," was read by Miss L. T. Guilford. L. H Jones, superintendent of the Cleveland schools, followed with an able and thoughtful paper on "Present Ideals, and Future Prospects of Public Education in Cleveland," Prof. B. A. Hinsdale, of the University of Michigan, formerly president of Hiram College, and superintendent of Cleveland schools, spoke, in the evening session,
on "The Development of Primary and Secondary Education." The second day, September 8th, was occupied by Mgr. T. P. Thorpe, who spoke on education, with especial reference to the parochial and public schools of Cleveland; Dr. Levi Gilbert, who talked upon religion, morals, and education; and President Thwing, who ably discussed the development of higher education. In the evening, an address on legal education was delivered by Professor Jeremiah Smith, of the Harvard Law School.
The succeeding day, September 9th, was devoted to the section of religion, and the section of philanthropy. The exercises were held in Association Hall, and were commenced at 9.30 a. m., with J. G. W. Cowles presiding. The following papers were read: "The Baptist Church," prepared by Rev. H. C. Applegarth; "The Catholic Church," Chancellor George F. Houck; "The Congregational Church," Rev. J. G. Fraser; "The German Protestant Church," Rev. H. J. Reutenik; "The Jewish Church," Rabbi M. Machol;’ "The Methodist Episcopal Church," Mrs. W. A. Ingham; "The Presbyterian Church," Rev. A. C. Ludlow. In the aft4rnoon, a paper on "The History of the Charities of Cleveland," was read by L. F. Mellen; Dr. C. F.Dutton spoke on "The Mutual Relations of Riches and Poverty," and Rabbi Moses J. Gries, on "Organized Philanthropy."
With the close of Thursday, September 10th, the celebrations of Cleveland’s most memorable summer came to an end. It was Perry’s Victory Day that was observed, with an enthusiasm as great, and a patriotism as fervent, as was shown by the people of Cleveland on the opening of this series of commemorative events.
For the last time the national salute at daybreak notified the people to be up for their final holiday. Great crowds of visitors came in from the surrounding country, and the streets were everywhere filled, long before the beginning of the formal exercises. The weather was perfect, as though nature was willing to make amends for the heat and rains of the previous days.
There was a mass meeting in the Central Armory, at 9.30 a. m. Governor Bushnell was president of the day, and, on taking the chair, spoke briefly of the day and its meaning. He then introduced the Hon. Charles Warren Lippitt, governor of Rhode Island—the State in which Oliver Hazard Perry was born,--who had come to Cleveland as the city’s guest.
Governor Lippitt then delivered the chief address of the day, in which the story of Perry’s memorable battle, and its results was told in full. At its conclusion, Director-General Day offered a resolution, asking the Congress of the United States, and the general assembly of Ohio, "to make an appropriation sufficient to erect, on Put-in-Bay Island, an appropriate memorial over the long-neglected graves of the patriotic American soldiers and sailors of the Battle of Lake Erie." The resolution was adopted, unanimously.
An ode on Perry’s victory was read by Frederick Boyd Stevenson, of Chicago. Several descendants of Commodore Perry were introduced. The benediction was pronounced by Rev. Charles E. Manchester, and the gathering dispersed.
At 2.30 p. m., came the final great parade, industrial and military in its character. There were many soldiers in the line; the governors of Ohio and Rhode Island, with their staffs; the members of the Centennial Commission; the officers of the United States steamer "Michigan," and of the revenue cutter "Fessenden;" many fraternal and social organizations’ and a long line of floats, illustrative of Cleveland’s varied industries, and the products of her factories and shops. It was a crowning object-lesson, showing what the city of Moses Cleaveland could do, at
this end of the nineteenth century. It covered miles of the city’s streets, which were lined by thousands of spectators. The shades of evening had fallen, before the last float went by the reviewing stand, and the electric lights were called in to shed their brightness upon the final scene.
The people had no time to go home, but filled all the lake front at an early hour, where the Battle of Lake Erie was again fought over, in mimic warfare.
The Centennial celebration was brought to a close, at the conclusion of a banquet, given in the Hollenden Hotel, by the Centennial Commission, in honor of the guests of the day. James H. Hoyt presided, and at the proper point introduced Governor Bushnell, who made an extended and patriotic address. He was followed by Governor Lippitt, Hon. E. C. Bois, attorney-general of Rhode Island, James H. Hoyt, Rabbi Moses J. Gries, and, finally, Mayor Robert E. McKisson. He reviewed the century past, thanked all who had aided in making the Centennial a success, and spoke hopefully of the future. Then, with a mallet made from wood taken from the historic log-cabin, he gave a sharp rap upon the table and officially declared the Centennial celebration of 1896 at an end.