IN GREATER CLEVELAND.
In the record of 1848, mention was made of the founding of the Cleveland Board of Trade, and the time has come to redeem the promise there made, and show to what useful extent that humble association has grown. A law was passed by the Ohio Legislature, in 1866, recognizing such organizations and providing for their government. The Board of Trade, accordingly, on April 5th of the year named, surrendered its articles of association, and reorganized under the new law, becoming a chartered institution, with the name of the "Board of Trade of the City of Cleveland." The objects of this association were declared to be the promotion of integrity, good faith and equitable principles of business; "to discover and correct abuses; to establish and maintain uniformity in commercial usages; to acquire, preserve and disseminate valuable business statistics and information; to prevent or adjust controversies and misunderstandings which may arise between persons engaged in trade, and generally to foster, protect and advance the commercial, mercantile and manufacturing interests of the city."
Daily meetings were held at that time in the Atwater Building, on Superior street. There were but twenty members in the new organization.261 By 1892, its mem-
bership had grown to 485, and a surplus of $20,000 had been laid aside, for the purchase of a site and the erection of a building.
With the growth of the city, and a realization of the needs of Greater Cleveland, came the desire to make this commercial organization more useful, and to increase the scope of its work. "In August of this year," says the report for 1892, "the Committee on the Promotion of Industry began the collection of what is known as the business men’s fund, and the organization of a movement, within the Board of Trade, made up of subscribers to this fund." Through earnest work on the part of a few active members of the board, this fund ran up to a considerable sum of money in a short period. Seven business men, from among the subscribers to the fund, were added to the original Board of Trade committee, and a new general committee formed, as follows, to conduct the industrial work: Wilson M. Day, Chairman; L. E. Holden, Vice-Chairman; George T. McIntosh, Secretary; H. R. Groff, Treasurer; A. J. Wright, Michael Baackes, Myron T. Herrick, C. C. Burnett, L. W. Bingham, L. McBride, D. A. Dangler, Geo. Deming, J. B. Perkins, S. M. strong and W. J. Morgan. This committee, representing nearly one hundred of the most substantial and progressive business concerns of the city, met on September 24th and appointed Ryerson Ritchie to the position of superintendent of industry."262 The special labors of this able official were the
encouraging of new manufacturing and mercantile establishments to locate in Cleveland, the securing of advantageous freight facilities for shippers, the collection and dissemination of statistics, a study of the Ohio tax laws, with a view to reformation of the same, the watching of State and municipal legislation having reference to Cleveland, and the general co-operation of business men, in all questions relating to the city’s interests.
The active and able committeemen named above, and their associates in the Board, had not studied the conditions surrounding them, and the possibilities lying before them, very deeply, before they were led to the conclusion that a radical change in the base of operations was a matter essential to the largest degree of success. As a result, the Cleveland Board of Trade was legally reorganized, its name changed to the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, and its functions greatly enlarged. At a meeting of the older organization, on February 6, 1893, held in conformity with the laws of the State, a resolution was adopted, as follows: "That the name of the Board of Trade of the City of Cleveland be changed to the Cleveland Chamber or Commerce." In explanation of this movement, we quote as follows from the report263 of the board of directors of the Chamber, made on April 17, 1894: "To the enterprise and untiring efforts of the Board of Trade Committee on Promotion of Industry is due the successful organization of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. The persistent energy of that committee resulted in crystallizing a sentiment among business men in favor of a wider interest in progressive measures, a stronger faith in the advantage to the city of united work, and the necessity of having an organization so well equipped that it would invite the active interest of business men."
Soon after the change of name and character, above described, was accomplished, a new set of by-laws went into
operation. Those which had governed the older organization were, says the report above quoted, "suited particularly to an organization where dealing in grain, provisions, etc., was carried on; they were not appropriate for a deliberative body, representing equally every trade interest, and embracing within its membership a large number of professional men." The new laws adopted by the Chamber contained, among many others, the distinctive features here summarized: There were to be active, honorary and associate members. "Men of good standing, interested in the commercial, industrial and municipal advancement of the City of Cleveland," were eligible for the first-named class. A membership fee of twenty-five dollars, and annual dues of twenty dollars, were required of each active member. Three classes of membership seats were provided: Regular membership seat, at a cost of one hundred dollars; special membership seat, at a cost of five hundred dollars; a life membership seat, at a cost of one thousand dollars. The government of the Chamber was to be vested in a board of fifteen members, elected annually, the officers to consist of a president, two vice-presidents, a treasurer and a secretary. Committees were to be appointed on arbitration, boards and associations, building, education, entertainment, executive, legislation, library, manufactures, membership, municipal navigation, trade-extension and transportation. It was further decreed that: "Any number of members who may desire to be associated together as a board, exchange, society, or association, for the purpose of promoting more effectively the special trade, industry, business or profession in which they are interested, may form a board of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce." A sinking fund was created, for the erection of a Chamber of Commerce building.
The general plan of labor laid down for this great and powerful commercial organization is outlined in the above. How thoroughly, and with what success, that work was commenced and has been carried forward, only the completed history of Greater Cleveland will be able to show.
An examination of the able reports of the Chamber for 1894 and 1895 furnishes some interesting information.
New rooms in the Arcade were occupied on June 1, 1893, and formally opened on the evening of the 20th. So useful did these becomes as a center of business Cleveland, that between January 1 and April 17, 1894, 108 meetings of various kinds were held within them. Some of the strictly public questions which the Chamber took into consideration, and concerning which it made its influence felt, were the location of the new armory, the proposed opening of Bank street, various measures in which Cleveland was interested in connection with the World’s Fair, the question of transportation as bearing on Cleveland business, the securing to a new Federal building, series of excursions by representatives of wholesale and manufacturing establishments into territory outside of Cleveland, for the purpose of fostering a closer personal relationship between the country and the city merchants; concerning city taxes, the establishment of a branch hydrographic office in Cleveland, action looking to a reduction of insurance rates, the raising of funds for the relief of suffering caused by the industrial depression, action looking to a due observance of Cleveland’s Centennial of 1896, the improvement of the street railway service, the agitation of general municipal improvement, the adoption of a new system of recording receipts and shipments of freight, harbor improvement, the extension of manufactures, State taxation, the improvement of the city’s park system, and other points of a less important nature. The report of the secretary, on April 9, 1894, showed total receipts for the year of $49,560.92; a balance in the treasury of $30,569.61; a membership of 901.
A special work of great importance is thus referred to in the report: "The Chamber should be especially proud of the successful issue of its efforts to bring together, in one organization, the local commercial associations of the State, to promote by unity of action the commercial, industrial, financial and general business interests of Ohio.
The commercial conference called by the Chamber, on November 15th, was attended by fifty-five representative business men, delegated by the leading commercial bodies of the State. The report of the board of directors, recommending that a conference be called for the purpose of organizing a State board of commerce, was submitted and adopted by the Chamber, on the evening when its new rooms were formally opened. . . . The formative work, and subsequent meetings of the State Board and its council, indicate that it has already become an influential factor, and that it has prompted local organizations and business men generally to take a greater interest in questions which affect the welfare and prosperity of the people of Ohio. The Chamber may well congratulate itself that the Ohio State Bard of Commerce was conceived and founded through its efforts."
The annual report for 1895 showed that there were held in the rooms of the Chamber, during the year, 524 meetings, of which 337 were related directly to the work of the organization, 159 of local affiliated associations, and 28 of conventions and delegates. A point of exceeding interest is found in this statement, made by the directors: "Standing out prominently in the public eye, over and above the quiet, regular work of the Chamber, is the splendid achievement of having, within a few months, made certain the early building of a permanent home for the Chamber, by the accumulation of a fund of almost $200,000."264 A great many measures had been set in motion, discussed or approved by the Chamber, for the advancement of the general interests of Cleveland, all of which were clearly and fully set forth in the report referred to above. The report of the treasurer showed that the net cash resources of the Chamber, on April 9, 1895, amounted to $108,629.96. The sinking fund showed $188,292.88 assets and no liabilities. The total membership was 1,101.
Since that report was made, active and effective steps have been taken to make good the promise of a structure which should not only furnish the Chamber with a home, but also stand as a material representative of what that great body actually is. The block of land on the north side of the Public Square, running eastward from the new Society for Savings Building to Park place, and taking in the site of the Western Reserve Historical Society Building, has been purchased, and plans made for the early construction of a building which, with the land, shall cost not less than a half million dollars.
The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce is unique among institutions of its kind. It is said to be the first successful attempt to combine all of the interests of a great city into one strong, powerful organization, that should guard and foster them all. In its list of members may be found not only the merchants and the bankers, but vessel owners, manufacturers, builders, lawyers, physicians, editors, brokers, railroad men,--in short, all lines of labor and all the professions.
In a more material sense, the new structure is to become the center of the commercial and business interests of Cleveland, and a home, not only for the Chamber, but for its allied associations as well. It is intended to house such bodies as those of the coal men, the iron men, the builders, and manufacturers, the marine men, etc.
Because of the wide range of labor and opportunity furnished by this great commercial body, other interests of a similar nature have been merged into it. By a concert of action, the Cleveland Board of Industry and Improvement, the Committee on Promotion of Industry, the Produce Exchange and the Manufacturers’ Board, simultaneously went out of existence, leaving a clear field for the Chamber. The work done by these bodies is now in the hands of separate boards and committees. These, so far as organized, are the Transportation Board, Maritime Board and Manufacturers’ Board.
The Chamber’s trip to Atlanta, Ga., was the first that
body took outside the State, although it had previously visited the principal Ohio cities, on a tour of a similar nature. This State trip was so successful in a social way, gave such a fillip to the zeal of the members, and, most of all, brought such valuable practical results, that the Chamber thought that even greater good would result from this more extended excursion. So, therefore, on November 12 1895, two hundred members of the Chamber took a special train for Atlanta. When that city was reached, the tourists occupied the Illinois headquarters, where a reception was tendered them on November 14. Speeches of welcome were made by Mayor Porter and J. D. Courtney, of the Capital City Club. Mayor McKisson, President Day, of the Chamber of Commerce, and Col. J. J. Sullivan responded for the Cleveland visitors. After that, the time until November 16th was given up to sight-seeing, and, as was most natural, to advertising Cleveland and a laudable attempt to extend its business interests in this new quarter. On November 16th, the party left Atlanta, and arrived in Cleveland November 17th, very well satisfied with the trip, from every point of view.
There are also in existence in Cleveland a number of organizations of lesser note, devoted to fields of special labor, that largely and effectively supplement the more public work of the Chamber of Commerce. Among these, mention should be made of the Cleveland Builders’ Exchange, composed of builders, merchants and manufacturers engaged in the building lines: the Real Estate Board, incorporated in 1892, to improve the standing of
the brokers in real property, and to stimulate activity in that line of business; the Wholesale Grocers’ Association, and the Hardware Jobbers’ association.
"Commodore Perry," as the marble memorial to the hero of Lake Erie is popularly called, stood calmly throughout the rains and storms of the years, in the very center of the Public Square, until increasing traffic and the demands of travel caused his removal to the middle of the southeastern section of that public breathing place. Had some visitor returned to Cleveland after a long absence, in the year 1894, and sought the familiar figure, he would have been directed by the nearest policeman to seek it in an attractive corner of Wade Park, while a massive structure in stone and bronze would have been seen standing proudly upon the spot that had been the Commodore’s most recent resting place.
This is the Cuyahoga County Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument, erected by a patriotic people, in memory of those who fought in defense of the Union. It was dedicated, with impressive ceremonies, on the 4th of July, 1894.
There was little difference of opinion among the people of Cleveland as to the erection of this memorial, but there was opposition to its location upon the Public Square, and much discussion was had, accompanied by no small measure of litigation, before a decision was reached. It is possible, of course, in this connection, to give only the salient points of record regarding this great and patriotic memorial.265
The idea of erecting some commemorative monument, in honor of the soldiers and sailors who represented Cuyahoga County in the great contest for the Union, was suggested by an ex-soldier, William J. Gleason, at a meeting of Camp Barnett Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Society, on the
evening of October 22, 1879. In accordance with a resolution introduced by him, a committee of three was appointed, to take the matter into consideration. The suggestion was so approved in all quarters, that early in April, 1880, a law was passed giving the commissioners of Cuyahoga County authority to levy a tax for the erection of "a monument or memorial tablet," in honor of those who had died in defense of their country. As time went on, and the money for the purpose began to accumulate in the county treasury, the question of a site came up. The monument committee favored the southeast section of the Public Square. Levi T. Scofield was requested to submit a plan for a monument. In May, 1887, application was made to the city park commissioners for permission to occupy the space above referred to. Such permission was withheld. Steps were taken by the monument committee toward a fulfillment of their plan, and in April, 1888, a law was passed by the General Assembly, setting aside such section of the Public Square for monument purposes, excluding the county commissioners from further voice in the matter, and creating the Cuyahoga County Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument Commission. Under the provisions of that act, Governor J. B. Foraker appointed the commission as follows: William J. Gleason, Edward H. Bohm, Emory W. Force, Levi T. Scofield, Levi F. Bauder, James Harnett, Charles C. Dewstoe, J. J. Elwell, Joseph B. Molyneaux, James Hayr, R. W. Walters, and M. D. Leggett.
Plans were prepared and arrangements forwarded for practical work, when efforts were made by the park commissioners and owners of certain property abutting upon the Public Square to prevent the erection of the monument at the place named. The aid of the Cuyahoga Courts, and finally of the State Supreme Court, and the United States Courts was invoked, but the decisions were in favor of the Monument Commission. Some exciting scenes were enacted, from time to time, and in various places, in which ex-soldiers, city officials, lawyers, and the
public generally figured, with picturesque, if not always dignified, effect.
The outcome was that the monument was begun, and finished, within due time, and stands to-day upon the site originally chosen. A tall granite shaft is surmounted by the figure of Liberty. Massive stone and granite walls rise about its base. "The eagle, with wings extended," writes Mr. Gleason,266 "stands guard over the portal; the realistic scenes of the war, in the different branches of the service, reproduced in heroic bronze groups, are in place; the old army corps badges, gracefully carved in stone, entwined in laurel wreaths, adorn each of the four sides of the memorial room; the National’s beautiful emblem of liberty and justice, the glorious Stars and Stripes, floats majestically in the breeze from handsome flagstaffs on the four corners of the structure; while between the finely constructed walks and the monument are beds of lovely flowers, arranged in form and color representing the corps badges of the different divisions of the army and the badges of the Grand Army of the Republic, Loyal Legion, Women’s Relief Corps, Union Veterans’ Union, and the Sons of Veterans, bordered with wraths of immortelles and forget-me-nots." Within the structure are commemorative panels, bronze busts, colored marble walls, stained glass windows, the names of Cuyahoga’s soldiers and sailors cut in marble, a mosaic floor, bright lights—a temple indeed, fittingly adorned for the expression of that patriotic gratitude that called it into existence.
The dedication occurred on Independence Day, 1894. The city arrayed itself in holiday garb, in honor of the occasion. The day was ushered in by the booming of cannon, the ringing of bells, and the blowing of steam whistles. A Federal salute was fired at sunrise. A yacht race, and a grand band concert on the Public Square, occurred in the morning. Then came the dedicatory ex-
ercises. William McKinley, Governor of Ohio, the president of the day, delivered an address. There was music by a great chorus from the public schools. Virgil P. Kline read the Declaration of Independence. Hon. J. B. Foraker delivered an eloquent oration. There was a national salute of forty-four guns, a grand procession, and general illuminations after nightfall. The whole city, and much of the country roundabout, seemed to have sent all the people thereof as witnesses to the splendid celebration of the event; the procession was one of the greatest and most comprehensive ever seen in the streets of Cleveland; the monument was declared worthy of all this honor, and the strife and discussion that had been of the past were forgotten and forever buried, in the patriotic achievements of the present.267
There are two excellent methods by which the industrial and commercial development of a great city can be known—a personal inspection of its business and manufacturing centers, and an examination of the totals to which its many forms of enterprise foot up. For this latter task, which, of course, is the only one here open to us, we have access, in the case of Cleveland, to the census reports of 1890, and to a valuable report268 made two years afterwards by the Cleveland Board of Trade. These show where the city stood in the early days of this decade, and it is but proper to state that Cleveland's growth
has been as sure and steady since then, as it was in that remarkably expansive period extending from 1880 to 1890.269
What Cleveland really accomplished, between 1880 and 1890, was so aptly and forcibly described by Robert P. Porter, superintendent of the census of 1890, in an address before the Cleveland Board of Industry and Improvement in April, 1892, that I cannot forego the temptation to quote his remarks in some detail. Said he: "In ten years, you have doubled the number and value of the product of your establishments. You have nearly trebled the capital invested in manufactures, multiplied the total number employed two and a half times, and you are paying out, annually, in wages, more than three times as much as you did in 1880. We have carefully filed away, in Washington, a schedule sworn to by the special agent as a true and faithful statement of the condition of every one of the 2,300 manufacturing establishments of this city. . . . I doubt whether a more interesting comparison of your manufacturing industry is possible than that of the difference in cost of material and value of product, for this might be called the enhanced value due to manufacture, and really represents what the industry and capital of your city has accomplished. In 1880, this enhanced value amounted to $16,974,313, while in 1890 it
Amounted to $40,745,701, an increase of about 150 per cent. This may be considered as a gauge of your industrial enterprise. You have, in fact, nearly trebled your effective product."
Taking the census of 1890, and the Board of Trade report of 1892, as our guides for this inquiry as to Cleveland’s rank as a commercial center in the beginning of the present decade, we are led to these important general facts: Cleveland, in 1890; ranked fourth270 among the cities of the great lakes, in the volume of receipts and shipments of lake freight, the aggregate being 4,371,169 net tons. Of these, 3,088,512 tons were coal and iron ore. The total foreign and coastwise commerce of the customs district of Cuyahoga was 9,929,378 net tons. The magnitude of the city’s iron ore traffic is best shown by a quotation from the report above referred to: "An investment of $175,394,985 seems almost beyond the proportions of any one closely connected line of commerce, but such are the figures representing the capital involved, on July 1, 1892, in mining and transporting, by lake and rail, the output of the Lake Superior iron mining district. The sale and movement of every ton of ore from this district is conducted by sales agents in Cleveland, who are also owners of the mines to a large extent. Here the docks at all Lake Erie ports, excepting Buffalo and Erie, are controlled, and here is owned fully 80 per cent. Of the vessel property engaged in this commerce, which forms the largest single item in the lake traffic. This country consumed, in 1890, 17,500,000 gross tons of iron ore. Of this amount, 1,246,830 tons were imported, and 16,253,170 tons were of home production. Lake Superior mines produced, in the same year, 9,003,701 gross tons, or more than one-half the raw material, for a nation that leads the world in the output of pig iron. Bessemer steel and steel
rails. This statement is in itself enough to show the relation the city bears to the iron industry, whose prosperity is most often used to serve as a measure of the general business prosperity of the country."
Cleveland shipped by lake to Milwaukee, Chicago, Duluth and other upper lake ports, 1,016,487 tons of bituminous coal in 1891, and 922,536 in 1890. The main points concerning her railway traffic were as follows: The total outward movement of freight over the eleven lines of railway having direct entrance into the city aggregated 5,535,332 net tons in 1891. These railroads operated 5,237 miles of working line in 1890, carried 37,829,711 tons of freight; gross receipts ran up to $56,087,349; operating expenses, $47,467,744; made use of the services of 37,684 employes. The aggregate receipts and shipments by canal in 1891 were less than 60,000 net tons, made up mainly of a few lines of coarse freight.
In the earlier portions of this work, when recording the building of those little vessels hauled by oxen down to the place of landing, there was small indication that, before the end of the century, Cleveland would be able to claim the honor of being the largest shipbuilding point in the United States. Yet such she had come to be, at a date as early as that now under consideration.
The census report for the years 1889-90—which are taken together for this calculation—furnishes the following comparison between Cleveland and the two next largest shipbuilding points:
Cleveland, O., in gross tons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71,322
In the five years ending with 1890, Cleveland built a total of 100 vessels of all kinds, with a gross tonnage of 125,265.
Eight Cleveland shipbuilding and dry dock establishments made a return of capital to the census bureau of $2,587,775; employed 2,083 hands; paid out $1,188,662 for wages; $1,442,045 for material, and $73,921 for mis-
cellaneous expenses. Their products reached a combined value of $3,091,300. Four dry docks alone represented an investment of $450,000. On July 1, 1892, there were owned in Cleveland forty steel vessels, all of which, with one exception, were steamers, and having a net registered tonnage of 69,317 tons, and an insurance valuation of $7,119,000; all but five of them having been built in Cleveland. It was further computed that, in 1892, the actual value, at a low estimate, of the 289 vessels owned in Cleveland, was $17,000,000.271
In general manufacturing, the census report showed that, in heavy forgings, wire nails, nuts and bolts, carriage and wagon hardware, vapor stoves, sewing machines, steel-tired car wheels and heavy street railway machinery, Cleveland led all the cities of the country. "Here are located," says the Board of Trade report, "the greatest shoddy mills in America; a plant for the manufacture of sewing machine wood-work that has no equal in the world; a steel bridge works, that is represented in massive structures spanning rivers and valleys over the entire continent, and an electric light carbon works, having a capacity of ten million carbons annually, with a market for its product extending to Mexico, South America, China, and Japan."
The annual capacity of the Cleveland blast furnaces and iron and steel mills was reported, in net tons, as follows: Pig iron, 275,000; Bessemer and open-hearth steel blooms, billets and slabs, 545,000; rails, 100,000; wire rods, 288,000; merchant bars and shapes, 108,500; plates, axles, iron and steel forgings, etc., 210,000. Establishments to the number of 125, including blast furnaces, iron and steel mills, nut and bolt manufactories, foundries, machine shops, etc., turned out in 1890, a product valued at $47,364,764, and employed hands to the number of 17,465. Six big establishments engaged exclusively in the nut and bolt industry turned out goods to the value of $2,750,000 annually. Five car-wheel works had an annual capacity of 335,200 wheels. The city was headquarters of the malleable iron industry of the country. A half dozen establishments engaged in the manufacture of steel hollow ware and general hardware. The annual value of carriage, wagon and saddlery hardware was $4,750,000. Bridge building to the value of $2,000,000 a year was credited to one establishment. The amount of capital invested in foundries and machine shops was placed at $7,997,233, employing 8,155 hands, with a product valued at $13,432,334. The city led the world in the manufacture of vapor stoves. Sewing machines to the number of 150,000 were manufactured each year. The manufactures in lumber, mill products from logs, lumber planed, and sash, doors and blinds, were valued at $2,219,697. Cleveland’s product in flour in 1891 was 675,000 barrels, valued at $2,600,000. In printing and publishing, 93 establishments, capitalized at $2,527,435, did a business of $3,147,426. In 1890, Cleveland possessed 21 slaughtering and meat-packing houses, capitalized at $810,957, and having a product valued at $8,673,966. In wool shoddies and blankets, the annual output reached $2,225,000. In wearing apparel, the value was $3,972,392. Business in boots and shoes was done to the value of $2,800,000. Petroleum products, outside of the Standard Oil Company’s, $4,000,000. Paints, $2,008,986. Drugs and chemicals,
$944,737. Lake fisheries, from $250,000 to $300,000. The aggregate annual sales, as given in the Board of Trade Report (1892) on the leading wholesale mercantile lines, may be summarized as follows:
Turning to the banks,272 we find the following significant figures, on July 1, 1892:
In the above, the Society for Savings is not enumerated. Its deposits then amounted to $21,539,844.
Referring to that conservative business barometer, the real estate and building business, we find by examination of the reports made by the city inspector of buildings that in the three years and seven months ending December 3, 1891, there were erected in Cleveland 9,425 new buildings, and 4,748 additions were made to those then standing. The total estimated cost of these improvements was $18,141,932. The real estate transfers and leases for the ten years ending December 31, 1891, numbered 68,683, involving a money consideration to the great amount of $258,244,403, or an average of over twenty-five million dollars each year.273
A reference to the building statistics, as shown in the census of 1890,274 will furnish the following interesting figures: Dwellings in Cleveland, January 1, 1891, 38,463; estimated value, $42,746,807. Barns, 6,311; estimated value, $1,855,810. Stores, 3,034; estimated value, $15,912,175. Mills and shops, 1,291; estimated value, $5,238,565. Miscellaneous, 740; estimated value, $14,025,656. Totals, 49,839; $79,779,013.
The assessed value of Cleveland real estate, in 1891, was $89,512,700. Of personal property, $28,320,500. The real valuation was $500,000,000. Exempt from taxation, $18,000,000. The debt of the city was $8,735,291.73. The assets and sinking fund, $16,534,353.84. The total cost of construction of the water works department, to January 1, 1892, was $6,280,656.17. Water works bonds then outstanding amounted to $1,775,000. The net earnings of the department, in 1891, were $419,874.43. The total area of the city was 24.48 square miles. Number of streets, 2,303. Miles of streets, 470. Main and branch sewers, 179 miles. Ten swing or draw bridges, 10 railroad swing or draw bridges, 40 stationary bridges. Lake frontage, 5 miles; river frontage, 16 miles. Street railways, 174 miles. The internal revenue collections in the eighteenth district of Ohio (Cleveland), for the year ending June 30, 1892, were as follows: Fermented liquors, $530,848.13; distilled spirits, $39,604.50;cigars and cigarettes, $275,454.86; snuff, $30,604.50; tobacco, $22,694.34; special tax, $178,276.12; oleomargarine, $36,025.28. Total, $1,086,332.86. The religious growth of the city was represented by more than two hundred church socie-
ties. Its literary status was indicated by 112 newspapers, magazines and other periodicals.
Another illustration of the size to which Cleveland has grown, in this year of her Centennial, is shown in the statistics of her Post-office. Besides the now antiquated and inadequate main Post-office, fronting on the Public Square, the city has four large carrier stations, known as A, B, C and D; seven sub-stations, known as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, and twenty-nine stamp agencies scattered throughout the city. As an indication of the recent extensive growth of the city’s postal business, I give the comparative receipts found in the following:
For the year ending June 30, 1890 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $461,854.63
For the following detailed statistics, the writer is indebted to John C. Hutchins, the present postmaster:275 The net receipts for the year ending June 30, 1895, of the Cleveland office, were $1,392.41, greater than the net receipts of all the presidential post-offices of the States of Louisiana, South Carolina and Nevada, and $61,495.07 greater than those of the State of Maine. For the same year, the ninth division railway mail service handled 104,049,986 pieces. Cleveland is the headquarters of the above-named railway service, which makes the office a receptacle for all unmailable and illegible matter reaching such division. This matter is rated up, and addresses notified, or, if insufficiently addressed, the same is corrected and sent forward, when possible, or sent to the dead letter office for final disposition. The greater part of such mail originates in foreign countries. For the year ending June 30, 1895, nearly one million pieces of this character were handled.
About 560 postal employes receive their pay through the Cleveland office. It has at present 135 clerks, 152 carriers, 25 sub-carriers and 248 railway postal clerks, and does a money order business of from three to four million dollars annually, and issues both domestic and international orders.
Cleveland has never been in undue haste to add to her possessions by annexation. Such adjacent territory as has been added to her borders, has come through manifest destiny, and in response to the reasonable demands of the people most directly interested. It was inevitable that, in the course of time, the thriving villages just to the westward should be absorbed into the great city, even as
were East Cleveland and Newburg. It was, therefore, no surprise when West Cleveland and Brooklyn came into the municipal fold. West Cleveland was annexed on March 5, 1894, and Brooklyn Village on April 30, 1894. The first named added to the city about 1,500 acres and 6,000 inhabitants; Brooklyn, 1,700 acres of land and 5,000 inhabitants. By the terms of annexation, Cleveland assumed the payment of bonds, as follows: West Cleveland, $95,349; Brooklyn Village, $143,674.72. The city, however, received the following amounts in cash from the treasurers of the two towns: West Cleveland, $6,172.17; Brooklyn Village, $33,000.92. It also received permanent improvements, valued as follows:
Up to November 16, 1895, Cleveland had been singularly free from serious accidents on its street railroads, although its river and its viaducts, with their swing-bridges, were constant menaces. On that date, however, in an early hour of the evening, a car plunged through the open draw of the Central Viaduct, into the Cuyahoga River, 100 feet below. Seventeen deaths resulted, all from drowning, for there were no injuries on the bodies when they were recovered. The car was one on the Cedar and Jennings avenue line of the "Big Consolidated" system, and it was going to the South Side. The accident occurred at the north end of the draw. Its cause is uncertain, for the testimony before the coroner was at direct odds on the vital point. The bridge-tender swore that the bridge had been opened for a tug boat, that the warning red lights were displayed, and that the gates were closed and
locked. The motorman, who jumped and was saved just as his car went over the brink, swore that the gates were open, and there were no lights. The conductor, who gave the signal to start after the car had stopped at the safety switch, was one of the drowned, and so his testimony, which would have been final, was lost. The coroner’s verdict was non-committal as to the placing of the responsibility. Augustus Rogers, the motorman who was held for manslaughter, was discharged. Only one passenger was saved. He went down with the car, but struggled out to the surface of the water and clung to a spile till rescued.
After a number of years of agitation, by press and public, it seems within the range of easy probability that Cleveland will have a new government building. Hon. Theodore E. Burton, congressman from this district.276 drafted a bill asking for an appropriation of $2,500,000 for this purpose, and it has already received the preliminary approval of the committees, and it will undoubtedly be passed without difficulty. The new building will, probably, occupy the site of the present one, the Case Library property, and also the street between them.
Cleveland will have a noble art gallery, and a helpful art school, so soon as certain legal complications, attending the consolidation of a number of bequests for this purpose, are disposed of. The first citizen whose generosity took this turn was H. B. Hurlbut. By his will, his immense estate, and valuable art collection, were given to his wife for life. At her death, they were to be used to found an art gallery, after certain legacies were paid. Henry C. Ranney, James ED. Cleveland, and William E. Miller are the trustees of this fund. Horace Kelley, who
died in December, 1890, left valuable real estate, encumbered only by an allowance to his widow, for the purpose of establishing an art gallery, and the founding of an art school. The trustees names are James M. Jones, Henry C. Ranney and Alfred S. Kelley. John Huntington, as before stated, gave a certain per cent. of the income from his estate, during the life-time of his children, and at their death a definite amount of property, for an art gallery, and an evening polytechnic school. Henry C. Ranney, Edwin R. Perkins, John V. Painter, S. E. Williamson, Charles W. Bingham, John H. Lowman, James D. Cleveland, George H. Worthington, and Mariette Leek Huntington, are the trustees. On December 23, 1892, J. H. Wade, who wished to see the art gallery project take tangible form, gave four acres in Wade Park, for the proposed building. As the purposes of all these bequests are the same, and the trustees of a single mind, in their desires to co-operate, it only needs the proper legal measures to amalgamate these funds, and then the gallery, and the schools, will immediately follow.
The newspapers of Cleveland did not wait for the dawn of the city’s centennial year to show that they were keeping step with the music of progress, nor for the advent of Greater Cleveland, in which to give evidence that they were abreast with modern methods. Perhaps it would be just to say, that no one agency has done as much for the encouragement of enterprise and the advertisement of Cleveland’s claims before the world at large , as her local press.
In the pages preceding, mention was made of the early ventures in the newspaper line. That record ended in,
Or near, 1840. To attempt to carry it forward, in the completeness of detail, through the half century and more that lies between that date and this would be as mournful as reading the inscriptions in a cemetery, and about as fruitful of results. Like all cities that have passed through experiences worthy of mention, Cleveland has seen her scores and scores of newspaper ventures spring up , as in a night , and die with the same ease and expedition.277 There are few things more easily done than to start a newspaper; there are few things more difficult than to keep it going.
The founding of the "Cleaveland Herald" has already been related, at some length. A long, useful, and honorable career was permitted it, between its humble beginning, in 1819, and its partition and absorption, in 1885.
The "Herald" became the "Herald and Gazette," in 1837, having united its fortunes with the "Gazette," established by Colonel Whittlesey, in the preceding year. At a little later date, the ownership passed into the hands of Josiah A. Harris. In 1850, he sold a part interest to A.W. Fairbanks, who assumed charge of the publication department, and added a job printing outfit. In 1853, George A. Benedict became one of the proprietors and editors, and, near the close of the Civil War, Mr. Harris retired, Mr. Benedict becoming editor, and the busi-
ness being carried on by Fairbanks, Benedict & Co. The "Herald," during these years, had become strong, powerful, and prosperous, and an outspoken organ of the Republican party. In 1876, Mr. Benedict died, and his interest was purchased by his partner.
Toward the end of 1877, the "Herald" passed into the control of Richard C. Parsons and William P. Fogg. The Herald Publishing Company was formed a little time thereafter. The stock was held by various parties. Col. Parsons and Mr. Fogg resigned the management. The old newspaper was destined to pass through various experiences, all of which tended to financial loss, and, in 1885, it passed out of existence. It was divided and absorbed by its two rivals,--the "Plain Dealer" taking the plant, and the "Leader" the name, news franchises and subscription lists.278
Next in age, among the daily newspapers that have been, for years, identified with the history of Cleveland, comes the "Plain Dealer." In 1834, the "Advertiser," established as a Whig organ, passed into the control of Canfield & Spencer, who continued its publication, as a Democratic weekly, until 1836, when it was issued as a daily. It was sold, in 1841, to J. W. and A. N. Gray, who changed its name to the "Plain Dealer." It continued as a staunch Democratic organ, while extending its facilities and reputation as a news gatherer. Its editor, J. W. Gray, died in 1862. Four years later, the paper was purchased by William W. Armstrong, of Tiffin, Ohio, a veteran editor and publisher, who had but recently retired from office, as Secretary of State. In 1877, he organized the Plain Dealer Publishing Company, of which
he became president and manager, while still retaining his position as editor. The paper was continued, as an evening publication, until 1885, when it was sold to L. E. Holden and others, who also secured the "Herald" plant, as before mentioned, and began the issuing of a morning and Sunday edition. The present officers of the company are: President, L. E. Holden; Vice-President, L. Dean Holden; Treasurer, R. R. Holden; Secretary and General Manager, Charles E. Kennedy. Because of other large and diversified interests, L. E. Holden did not give the paper much attention, until 1893. Since then, he has been the controlling and directing force of the editorial columns of the "Plain Dealer," and, although unable to fall into routine work, contributes the leading articles upon all subjects of moment. The general manager is Charles E. Kennedy, who served an apprenticeship in both the editorial and business departments of Cleveland newspapers. He has held his present position since January 1, 1893. The wonderful growth of the "Plain Dealer," especially during the past three years, warranted a larger and better newspaper office, and in the spring of 1896, the company bought the large building facing on Superior, Bond and Rockwell streets, and remodeled it into a modern newspaper home for the "Plain Dealer," and its afternoon edition, the "Evening Post." The "Plain Dealer" has of late taken a high stand in the newspaper world, and is well regarded as one of the leading and most influential of the Democratic organs of the West.
The "Cleveland Leader has for years been closely identified with the interests of the City of Cleveland, and with those of the Republican party, of which it is one of the leading exponents. It has been known under its present name since 1854, although its actual beginning as a newspaper must be sought a decade earlier. In 1844, the "Ohio American" was established in the City of Ohio, by R. B. Dennis, who conducted it as an organ of the old Liberty party. In 1845, Edwin Cowles became its publisher. The "True Democrat," an anti-slavery Whig
organ, was established at Olmsted Falls, O., in 1846, and was moved to Cleveland one year later. In 1848, the "True Democrat" and the "Ohio American" were consolidated, under the name of the first-mentioned. In 1852, Joseph Medill came to Cleveland and established the "Daily Forest City," and in 1853 this paper and the "True Democrat" were consolidated under the name of the "Daily Forest City Democrat." Edwin Cowles, who was then engaged in the printing business, became one of the owners of the newly-named journal, the proprietors being known under the firm name of Medill, Cowles & Co. Mr. Cowles took charge of the business department, the editors being Mr. Medill and John C. Vaughan.
In March, 1854, the long name with which the paper had been burdened gave way, and the "Cleveland Leader" took its place among the journals of Ohio. The entire property passed, by purchase, into the hands of Mr.Cowles279 in 1855. In 1860, he took personal charge of the editorial department, where he remained until his death. In 1860, the Cleveland Leader
Printing Company was formed, Mr. Cowles holding the majority of the stock. In 1869, the "Evening News" was added, as an afternoon edition of the "Leader," and at a later date, as before mentioned, the name and good-will of the "Herald" were obtained by purchase, and the evening paper became the "News and Herald."
The "Leader," from the first, has been an earnest and aggressive supporter of the Republican party, and was long since recognized as the chief exponent of the party in this section of the country. Its management, at present, is in the hands of the following officers: President and General Manager, E. H. Perdue; Vice-President, Alfred H. Cowles; Secretary, Charles W. Chase; Treasurer, W. F. Bulkeley; Editor-in-Chief, James B. Morrow.280
On November 2, 1878, Ed. W. Scripps and John S. Sweeney, of the "News," Detroit, Mich., began the publication of the "Penny Press" in Cleveland. It was a one-cent seven-column folio, and its outfit consisted largely of an upright Baxter engine, and a four-cylinder Hoe press. Mr. Scripps was the editor, and Mr. Sweeney the business manager. The paper succeeded, was repeat-
edly enlarged, and now has a larger circulation than its projectors ever hoped for. It is now known as the "Cleveland Press." It owns its publication building, has five Potter presses, and is constantly making improvements. The editor-in-chief is E.W. Scripps, president of the Scripps-McRae league of newspapers. R. F. Paine,281 the editor, has been with the paper seventeen years. E. W. Osborn is the business manager.
The "Morning Recorder" is the youngest of the Cleveland dailies. Its first number appeared on September 9, 1895, and it is published every day, except Sunday. It is decidedly unique, and aims to be as original as possible. It is only four pages, and seldom uses cuts. Politically, it is independent and fearless. The "Recorder" is owned and published by the Record Publishing Company, which was organized by George A. Robertson, who has been connected with Cleveland journalism, almost constantly, for twenty years. The officers of the company are: President, M. C. Reefer; Vice-President, George P. Cowey; Treasurer, George A. Robertson; Secretary, Louis F. Post. M. C. Reefer is manager, George A. Robertson282 editor, and R. B. Gelatt managing editor.
The first issue of what is now the "Cleveland Daily World" made its appearance on August 29, 1889. The "Sunday World," formerly the "Sunday Journal," had been in existence some years prior to that time. The year 1889, was somewhat fruitful in the starting of daily newspaper enterprises in Cleveland. The first that shone out was the "Evening Star," on the West Side. It was the daily offshoot of a weekly paper, by the same name, that had been issued by Doty & Hall, on Saturdays. Robinson & Cockett, the proprietors of the "Sunday World," started an afternoon "World" in the last days of August, and George A. Robertson, of the "Sunday Sun and Voice," started the "Evening Sun" about this time. A little later, in the fall, the "Morning Times" was started, by H. E. Woods and associates. From all these efforts, only one paper survived, and that is now called the "Daily and Sunday World." The process of growth and elimination is interesting. Within a few weeks, the "Sun" and "World" united, and the name "Sun" was soon dropped, leaving the present title. The :"World" had strong financial backing, and though it naturally met vigorous competition, grew steadily in circulation and influence. It manager, almost from the start, was B. F. Bower, who came to Cleveland from Detroit. Its editor was George A. Robertson. The president of the company, and one of its chief financial backers, was F. B. Squire. In April, 1895, Messrs. Bower and Robertson sold all of their interest, and Mr. Squire most of his, to
Robert P. Porter, who is now its editor and proprietor. The managing editor is John J. Spurgeon.283